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1. There are reasons human activities can cause shortcomings in biogeochemical cycling. Fish kills can be caused by eutrophication and an increased growth of algae. Algae causes a loss of available oxygen, called anoxia. Anoxia can kill fish and other aquatic organisms. Algae does produce oxygen but only when there is enough light. Eutrophication reduces the clarify of water so in eutrophic lakes, algae is starved of light. When algae do not have enough light, instead of producing oxygen, algae consume oxygen.

2. Opportunistic species exhibit aggressive growth. They have a short-life span, are small in size and they produce numerous offspring that they show little care to. They are typically found in unpredictable and variable environments and their population can survive anything that threatens it. Most insects are examples of an opportunistic species. Equilibrium species exhibit a strategic growth. They are opposite of opportunistic, meaning they are large with a long-life span. They have few offspring to whom they give more care to, but they are more likely to become extinct. Birds are examples of equilibrium species.

3. Biodiversity is the amount of variation of life. This refers to species variation, genetic variation, or ecosystems within an area. Preserving biodiversity has a economic value to humans as well as indirect economic value because or ecosystem is affected by any imbalances in the environment. For example, lack of fish will cause animals that feed on them to die and lack of trees causes lack of oxygen meaning not enough to breath.

4. Sustainable societies can be described as being able to provide the same goods and services to future generations while preserving biodiversity. Sustainable societies are characterized by the use of renewable energy resources product recycling and reuse of heat and waste products. Also preserving ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, and agricultural land. A non-sustainable society uses non-renewable fossil fuel energy which leads to pollution of ecosystems. Fresh water is a renewable resource but society is running out of the supply and natural ecosystems are being destroyed to be used for human uses such as factories and housing.