• Anushilan Samiti was a Bengali Indian organization
• Existed in the first quarter of the twentieth century
• Used violence as the means for ending British rule in India.
• The organization was started by local youth groups in Bengal in 1902. It had two prominent, if somewhat independent, arms in East and West Bengal identified as Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar group
British Expedition to Tibet
• The British expedition to Tibet, also known as the “British invasion of Tibet” began in December 1903 and lasted until September 1904.
• The expedition was a temporary invasion by British Indian forces using a cover up title called the Tibet Frontier Commission
• The expedition was intended to counter Russia interest in the East and was initiated largely by Lord Curzon, the head of the British India government.
Delhi Durbar (Second Time)
• Delhi Durbar (meaning “Court of Delhi) started British in Delhi, India, to identify the succession of an Emperor or Empress of India.
• Also known as the Imperial Durbar
• First one occurred in 1877
• Second one occurred in 1903,
• Third one occurred in 1911, at the height of the British Empire.
Partition of Bengal
• Partition of Bengal was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
• The separation of the Muslim eastern areas from the Hindu western areas.
• Hindus in the West of Bengal that they would become a minority in the province of Bihar and Orissa.
• Hindus were made and called it “divide and rule”, saying that the colonizers turned the native population against each other to gain power,
• Curzon said the partition would produce administrative efficiency.
• Muslims formed their own national organization on communal lines.
• Bengal was reunited by Lord Hardinge in 1911 , because Swadeshi protested against the policy and the growing belief by Hindus East Bengal create its own courts, laws and policies.
Jugantar (meaning new era) formed.
• One of the two secret movements in Bengal for Indian independence.
• Several Jugantar members were arrested, hanged, or deported for life to the Cellular Jail in Andaman.
• The amnesty after World War I released Juantar members resulting in joining Deshbandhu’s Swarajya or Communist Party of India
• Formed in Dacca. The Muslim League (AKA Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
• Advocated a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan.
• Successfully led to the partition of British India in 1947 by the British Empire.
• The Indian National Congress (INC)
• Established 1885 was divided into two groups (in the year 1907) mainly by extremists and moderates at the Surat Session of the Congress.
• The period 1885-1905 was known as the period of the moderates as moderates dominated the Indian National Congress.
• Moderates used petitions, meetings, and leaflets.
• The partition of Bengal became the rise of extremism in INC.
Alipore bomb case
• Known as the Alipore Bomb Case, the Muraripukur conspiracy, or the Manicktolla bomb conspiracy,
• A criminal case held in India in 1908.
• The case saw the trial of a number of Indian nationalists of the Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta
• Charges of “Waging war against the Government” of the British Raj.
• The trial followed attempt on the life of Presidency Magistrate Douglas Kingsford in Muzaffarpur by Bengali nationalists Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki in April 1908.
• Two developments emerged in the Indian national movement
o First, nationalists demanded representation of Indians in government.
o In 1906, Lord Minto argued the growth of education led to the rise of classes in India.
o Indians claimed equality of citizenship and demanded a greater say in government.
• Second, the emergence of extremist nationalists tried to undermine the foundations of the British rule.
o The most violent form of the movement led to the assassination of government officials – both Indian and British.
Cancellation of Partition of Bengal
• Due to these political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited on 12 December 1911.
• A new partition which divided the province on linguistic, rather than religious grounds:
o The Hindi
• Bihar and Orissa Province (west), Assam Province (east)
• Capital of British India moved from Calcutta to New Delhi.
The Delhi Conspiracy Case
• AKA the Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy, refers to a conspiracy in 1912 to assassinate the then Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge, at the time of the transfer of the capital of British India from Calcutta to New Delhi.
• Hatched by the Indian revolutionary underground in Bengal and Punjab and led by Rashbehari Bose
• A homemade bomb was thrown into the Viceroys’s Howdah (bed on top of camel/elephant) while traveling through a suburb of Delhi.
• The Viceroy survived and Lord Hardinge was injured.
• Efforts were made to destroy the Bengali and Punjabi revolutionary underground
• The investigations after the assassination attempt led to the Delhi Conspiracy trial.
o Rash Behari Bose threw the bomb.
• The Ghadar Party was an Indian revolutionary organization primarily founded by Punjabis.
• The party was multi-ethnic and had Sikh, Hindu and Muslim leaders headquartered in the United States.
• After the outbreak of World War I, Ghadar party members returned to Punjab
• The party was known building the foundation of future Indian revolutionary movements for independence.
Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in Literature
• Rabindranath Tagore (May 7th, 1861 – August 7th, 1941) was a Bengali poet, musician and artist
o Reshaped Bengali literature and music, and Indian art
• Author of Gitanjali and its “profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse”
• In 1913, he was the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
• Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old.
• He spoke our against British Raj and promoted independence from Britain.
• The Hindu–German Conspiracy was a movement between 1914 and 1917 by Indian nationalist groups to rebel against British Raj during World War I.
• Ghadar Party nationalists formed in the United States
• In Germany, the Indian independence committee
• This plot was planned to be executed in February 1915 with the aim of overthrowing British rule over the Indian subcontinent.
Ghadar Conspiracy – unraveled plan
• The Ghadar Conspiracy also known as the Ghadar Mutiny, was a plan for mutiny in the British Indian Army to end the British Raj in India.
• The plot developed at the beginning of World War 1, between the Ghadar Party in the United States, the Berlin Committee in Germany, the Indian revolutionary underground in British India and the German Foreign Office through the consulate in San Francisco.
• The incident derives its name from the North American Ghadar Party’s in Canada and United States.
• Formulated between 1914 and 1917 to initiate a Pan-Indian rebellion against the British Raj during World War I.
• The plans were thwarted by intelligence and police response.
• British intelligence infiltrated the movement and last-minute intelligence from a spy stopped the rebellion before it started.
Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul.
• The Provisional Government of India was established in Kabul,Afghanistan on December 1, 1915 by Indian nationalists, during World War I.
• The Indian Movement gained support from Russia, China, and Japan for the.
• The provisional government found significant support from the internal administration of the Afghan government.
Mahatma Gandhi returns to India.
• Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2nd, 1869 –January 30th, 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
• Promoted nonviolent civil rebellion
• Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
• Gandhi was known as the “Father of the Nation.”
• Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family
• Trained in law at the Inner Temple in London.
• Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil protest as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, for an Indian community struggling for civil rights.
• After his return to India in 1915, he led protest against discrimination and unfair tax laws.
• Gained leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921
• Gandhi and his followers challenged the British-imposed salt tax in 1930,
• Called for the British to leave India in 1942.
• Jailed in both South Africa and India.
• Undertook long fasts political protest.
• Gandhi’s vision based on religious pluralism
o He was challenged in 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism for a separate Muslim homeland inside of India.
• Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence
o British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sections, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan.
o Just after the partition, Gandhi undertook several fasts to stop religious violence.
o The last fast on January 12, 1948 when he was 78
o Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on January 30, 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest.
• The Lucknow Pact agreement reached between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress and at the joint session held in Lucknow in December 1916.
• The Muslim League leaders agreed to join the Congress movement demanding Indian autonomy.
• The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 was the first Satyagraha Gandhi movement and a major revolt in the Indian Independence Movement.
• An uprising of farmers in Champaran district of Bihar, India during the British colonial period.
• The farmers were forcibly grow opium with barely any payment for it so they rebelled.
• Champaran Satyagraha was the first popular satyagraha (standing up for truth) to be started
• Champaran is a district which comes under the state Bihar.
• Under Colonial era laws, many farmers were forced to grow some indigo on a portion of their land as a condition of their tenancy.
• This indigo was used to make dye.
• The Germans had invented a cheaper artificial dye so the demand for indigo fell.
• The Kheda Satyagraha of 1918, in the Kheda district of Gujarat, India during the period of the British Raj, was a Satyagraha movement organized by Mohandas Gandhi.
• Gandhi organized this movement to support peasants of the Kheda district.
• People of Kheda were unable to pay the high taxes levied by the British due to crop failure and a plague epidemic.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
• The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, AKA Amritsar massacre, happened on April 13th, 1919 when British Indian Army fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
• The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, AKA Mont-Ford Reforms, were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
• The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921.
• The important features of this act were as follows:
o The Central Legislative Council was now to consist of two houses- The Imperial Legislative and the Council of States.
o The provinces were to follow the Dual Government System or Dyarchy.
Rowlatt Act is passed
• The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, known as the Rowlatt Act or Black Act
• Legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March, 10th, 1919, extending the emergency measures of detention, and/or incarceration without trial and judicial review.
• The Rowlatt Committee, named after its president, British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, authorized the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj for up to two years without a trial.
• Gave the imperial authorities power to deal with all revolutionary activities.
• Significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule.
• Led by Mahatma Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
• Resisted British rule in India through non-violent means.
• Protesters would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and picket liquor shops.
• Gandhi’s ability to rally hundreds of thousands of common citizens toward the cause of Indian independence, happened on a large scale in this movement through the summer of 1920.
• A pan-Islamist political protest campaign launched by Muslims of British India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate and restore the Caliph’s position who was considered the leader of Muslims.
• It was a protest against the humiliating sanctions placed on the Caliph and Ottoman Empire after World War 1.
• The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favorable diplomatic position
• By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the role of Caliph.