Artificial photosynthesis is biological process in which sunlight is used to prepare the nutrients for the plant with the help of the green pigment, i.e, chlorophyll. However, when the sun sets there is no way that plant can prepare their meal. It is now become a technology which mimics the photosynthesis in nature; the use of nano-sized light-sensitive materials will be converted to light energy, resulting in oxidoreductase reaction. In short, it is a useful technology that uses light energy to produce same chemicals as in natural process.
The energy from the sunlight converts into the chemical energy due to which it becomes more suitable for its storage. In this conversion side products are not yielded like the greenhouse gases. But, in the process carbon dioxide can be utilized in the same way as it does in plants. .
The chlorophyll present in leaves grasp sunlight, and couple of enzymes and other proteins uses this light to split water molecules into hydrogen, electrons and oxygen (protons). Electrons and hydrogen are used to convert carbon dioxide into nutrients for the plant, and oxygen is freed into the atmosphere.
To re-create photosynthesis in artificial conditions, two key steps are necessary: the ability to collect solar energy, and the ability to split water molecules.
experimenters first used a cobalt metal, phosphorus, and indium-tin oxide electrode placed in water to create a new catalytic device that relies on current generated by external sources of energy (such as solar energy, wind energy, etc.) , A catalyst flowing through the electrode and consisting of cobalt and phosphoric acid, using the catalytic action of cobalt and phosphorus leads water to produce hydrogen and oxygen which are collected at both poles. This process is most probably same as photosynthesis, especially using solar energy as a source of electricity. Hydrogen and oxygen can be used directly for combustion, pollution-free. Moreover, the energy produced by the miture of hydrogen and oxygen can be stored in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, enabling uninterrupted power supply both day and night. But splitting the water molecule is not so simple; it requires about two and a half electron volts of energy. Therefore, we need a catalyst that “pushes” the chemical reaction.