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COURSE:
ARC 3202 (HISTORY OF SOUTHEAST-ASIA ARCHITECTURE)
PROGRAMME:
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE (STUDIO 2)
TITLE:
THE IDEA OF A MALAYSIAN ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT
PREPARED BY:
NUR QISTINA BT GHAZALI 187508
SUBMISSION DATE:
1ST JUNE 2018
LECTURER:
DR. NANGKULA UTABERTA
The Idea of a Malaysian Architectural Identity towards a Sustainable Environment
Nur Qistina bt Ghazali
Faculty of Design and Architecture,
Universiti Putra Malaysia,
80310 Serdang, Selangor.

[email protected]
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the issues, transformation, and challenges of creating a national product vogue identity inside the context of a multi-ethnic country. Generally, there’s no proof that the characteristics of product vogue identity ar generalized supported the agreement of multi-ethnic deciding. Inside the context of Asian nation, the foremost issue is regarding the identification of national identity for native product vogue. This semiconductor diode to the question which will we have a tendency to tend to ascertain Asian nation product vogue identity exploitation multi-ethnic preferences? By perceptive the mutual agreement between all ethnic preferences before the formation of Malaysia, it’s plausible to use one dominant of culture and heritage influence from Malay ethnic as a results of the privilege was clearly written inside the accord, philosopher Commission and Malaysia’s Constitution. The transformation got to in line with the sectors of education, research, industry, and agency. The challenges as of those days and future were to want a stand regarding uniformity of Asian nation product vogue identity and it got to be acceptable for the choice grouping in Malaysia. Finally, we have a tendency to tend to propose that further studies regarding Malay ethnic culture and heritage got to lean inside the attitude of linguistics and grammar interpretations.

Keywords—culture and heritage; ethnic; identity
I. INTRODUCTION
Malaysia was stated as a multi-ethnic country when the independence since 1957. There square measure unit three major ethnic groups living in peace and harmony like Malay, Chinese and Indian. The inclusion of district and territorial dominion in 1963 have brought loads of kind of quality and culture at intervals the countries. Several build an effort is formed by Malaysian designers in creating a Malaysian product design identity. However, the foremost challenges square measure that how to merge the characteristics of culture and heritage into one product style which be generalized representing all ethnicities in Malaysia? Or will Malaysian designers use Malay ethnic culture and heritage as an influence to represent Malaysian product design identity?
This paper seeks the answer concerning the upper than queries. Since the ingredients of this litigious paper consider the prevailing literature reviews, the statements reveal during this context need to be thought to be academic functions and will be perceived with an open mind.

II. ISSUES OF MALAYSIAN PRODUCT DESIGN IDENTITY
A. Malay identity as a Malaysian identity
In Malaya, main ethnos is Malay. In step with Population and Housing Census of Malaya in 2010 issued by the Department of Statistics Malaya 1, Malaysia’s population was twenty eight.3 million, with the Malays as a result of the biggest sort of fourteen.2 million people includes fifty.1% of the complete population. Chinese (22.6%), Indian (6.7%), others Bumiputera (11.7%), Foreigner (8.2%) et al (0.7%).

Previously, there square measure several Malay product styles exist in Malaya like Keris, Wau, Gasing, etc. Among common product that represents Malay identity could also be a Kukur Kelapa (Coconut Grater) (see Figure 1). All of them square measure classified by the govt of Malaya as a standard product style.

Fig. 1. Kukur Kelapa
Until now, the govt of Asian nation incorporates a quandary on distinguishing whole identity that representing Malaysian Product style identity. However, by gazing the history of the formation of Asian nation, it’s plausible (reasonable) to justify why we must always use Malay identity as a Malaysian identity by referring a mutual agreement of all ethnics through the accord (Before the independent), philosopher Commission (1956) and Malaysia’s Constitution (1957).

a) Accord (Before the independent)
The leaders of the three parties like United Malays National Organization (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) And Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) have mentioned associate degreed reached an agreement in relation to the three ethnics? demands upon the independence of Malaysia (now referred to as Malaysia). This has been written clearly among the accord that reciprocally, a Meg citizenships got to non-Malays, and non-Malays ought to acknowledge the special position of the Malays attributable to the “indigenous of us.” Some provisions of the law just like the position of Islam as a result of the official religion, the preservation of Malay reserve land, the position of the Malay rulers and Malay customs and conjointly the distribution of presidency square measure fencelike throughout this understanding. On the question of the national language, Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language) has been in agreement to be used attributable to the national language. The Chinese and Indians can still use their own languages but not in official communication. The national language is to be learned by everyone therefore Malayan voters can communicate with each other anywhere. Islam is that the official religion but different religions might observe by their adherents with none obstruction 2.

b) Philosopher Commission (1956)
The philosopher Commission was briefed on the agreement and understanding therefore they are going to be enclosed within the Constitution to be written. All three parties approved Constitution once several amendments were created. The impact of this Constitution contains a binding contract of the three ethnics among the Federation of Malaysia upon attaining independence in 1957. philosopher Commission that gives the framework of the Constitution states in its report that Article 153, the backbone of the agreement, is temporary, and endorsed that it reviewed fifteen years once independence. The Commission put together states that it associate degreed its provisions unit alone required to avoid an unforeseen unfavorable to the Malays in competition with members of the Malaysian society to a distinct, and conjointly the privileges square measure given to the Malays, however, the matter got to be bitten by bit reduced and eventually eliminated 2.

c) Malaysia’s Constitution (1957)
Article 153 of the Malaysian Constitution offers the responsibility of the principle di-Pertuan Agong (The King) to remain the position of the Malays and natives of Malaysia, a gaggle mentioned attributable to the “indigenous people.” The article such, however, the federal will defend the interests of these groups by establishing quota’s entry into public service, scholarships, and public education. It together sometimes thought to be an area of the agreement and is typically delineate as a legal defense for Malay condition 2.

B. Identity conflicts within the style of a multi-ethnic country
Most cases on merging product style identity of multi-ethnic into things of favor failing attributable to several reasons. Throughout this section, we provide a combine of samples of a multi-ethnic country. The first example is that the utilization of America (USA). The USA was observed as a multi-ethnic country. However, until now, there is no single product inside the USA which can be generalized as representing the multi-ethnic characteristics in their product vogue identity. In USA vogue history, the distinctiveness of a product depends upon the technology and knowledge of their national. One in every of the examples, yank economical vogue has become image inside the USA (see Figure 2). the 20th century’s fast cars, trains, and planes secure to beat house and time; their mechanics styling and aluminous bodies embodied a spanking new and trendy beauty that enchanted yank designers from the late Twenties to the Fifties 3. Streamlining became customary for everything, likewise as toy scooters, typewriters, power tools, tea kettles, Coca-Cola bottle, Lucky Strike packaging, feast ware pitchers, Studebaker cars, hound buses, and conjointly the 20th Century, restricted train. Among vanguard designers for yank economical vogue since the 19 Eighties to this unit Raymond Loewy, Donald Deskey, Henri Dreyfuss, Russel Wright, and Norman Bel Geddes. Moreover, Raymond Loewy has introduced the principle Most Advanced all the same Acceptable (MAYA) into the design. in line with the Raymond Loewy Estate’s web site he believed that, “…The adult public’s vogue is not primarily able to accept the logical solutions to their wants if the solution implies too vast a departure from what they have to be been conditioned into exceptive as a result of the norm 4.” for example, Apple product derived from this principle.

Fig. 2. American Streamlined Design (Designer unknown. mix all jr. Portable Electric Mixer, 1945–55)
The second example is Singapore. Singapore was proverbial conjointly as a multi-ethnic country. It consists of Chinese, Malay, Indian and alternative ethnics. A style created in Singapore is predicated on a vision-driven strategic style. At the core of every task may be a clear project vision crafted and aligned supported a mix of empathic analysis, business strategy Associate in nursing aware an intuition. This guide and evokes Singaporean designers on artistic exploration, whereas reassuring that the styles deliver results that are resonant each to the system and therefore the end-users 5. Realizing that development is Associate in Nursing array of divergent tensions, shoppers from various fields have leveraged on Singaporean designers smart sensibility, tested ability, and intensive expertise to form artistic leaps that pass as compelling and fascinating functions. For them, innovative style solutions towards Singaporean universal style commonplace ar the final word target for planning a product (see Figure 3).

Fig. 3. Singaporean Universal Design (Orca Design)
III. TRANSFORMATION OF MALAYSIAN PRODUCT DESIGN IDENTITY
Education
a) Style subject in class level
In Malaya, style subject is one in every of the elective subjects in high school that emphasizes the technology and skill of scholars. The invention has written with the intention of shaping the minds of inventive, innovative and inventive in preparation for the hands to be told and competent in facing the globe challenges of development and technology among the new millennium. The challenge lies with the education system is to provide further progressive and scientific students. this could be very important to developing a groundwork program to provide new technology and not whilst shoppers. In line with the education reform, the subject invention ab initio introduced altogether schools in Asian nation is one in every of the long-term plans to achieve the goal of producing a generation of Malaysians WHO unit of measurement creative, inventive and innovative 6. Royo and Mahmood 6 in their studies regarding vogue subject in three schools in Johor shows that the factors of students’ interest (mean = 2.69), students’ attitudes (mean = 2.84), teachers (mean = 2.92) and Invention subject agreeableness in school (mean = 2.74) unit of measurement at a moderate level.

b) Industrial style program at the upper establishment or universities
Many universities in Asian nation give students with a tutorial setting that nurtures ability, innovation, and exigent thinking. At intervals vogue (in this context industrial design) program, it’ll be Art-based (i.e., Universiti Putra Malaysia), Science-based (i.e., Universiti Teknologi Malaysia), and a mixture of Art-based and Science-based among the education (i.e., International Moslem University Malaysia). In Malaya, the course in the main focuses on ways that of analyzing problems, ways that of thought and skill, ways that of representation, presentation and communication. Students are exposed to downside resolution techniques and exigent thinking, facility, technical drawing skills, self-discipline, abstract vision, understanding and data of engineering principles, human factors/ engineering, aesthetics, industrial materials and processes and electronic computer-assisted vogue. The program focuses on three learning domains similar to psychological feature, affective and body process 7. Psychological feature domain revolves around data, comprehension, and exigent thinking on a particular topic. The affective domain describes the style people react emotionally and their ability to feel different living things’ pain or joy. Body process domain describes the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument form of a hand or a hammer. In relevance that actual learning domain, the Outcome-based education (OBE) has been introduced in Asian nation vogue education systems. Ways that of OBE square measure unit} student-centered learning ways in which trust empirical measurement student performance (the “outcome”) 8. OBE contrasts with the traditional education that primarily concentrates on the resources that unit of measurement usable to the scholar, that unit of measurement noted as inputs. Whereas OBE implementations generally incorporate a bunch of the various progressive pedagogical models and concepts, like reform arithmetic, block designing, project-based learning and whole language reading. Moreover, the understanding of diversity modish strategy: From structured thought to arise by itself, the ways ar penned among the design education program through downside resolution, normative, synthesis-analysis, reflective, and theology 9.

Research
a) Implicit
In Malaya, analysis on linguistics studies contemporary product layout has contributed to implicit (now not same, but understood in what’s expressed) contribution to the frame stylish experience. The linguistics are study modern-day the meanings 10 and within the style world it is ordinarily associated with “semiotics.” philosophical doctrine is that the study gift day signs and symptoms and sign structures, their structure, homes and position in socio-cultural conduct 11. The term “semantics” is fastidiously related to the study today’s the means that current signs and symptoms (or philosophical doctrine, that is an additional modern term). in numerous words, philosophical doctrine do not forget however paperwork speak meanings via signs – as well as while a kitchen appliance communicates that it belongs to the arena progressive kitchen utensil through its commonplace form and white color. to keep with Krippendorff 12, which implies could be a cognitively designed qualitative analysis. It by selection connects functions newest Associate in Nursing object and functions newest its (actual surroundings or imaged) context into a coherent unity. The explanations for such suit are several 13.

b) Explicit
in the in the meantime, analysis on grammar studies gift day product layout has contributed to specific (expressing all details during a clean and obvious means, feat little question on the meant that means) contribution to the frame spanking new understanding. Grammar offers with the form and composition latest visible factors 14. Extensively, it entails the analysis progressive a product’s technical production additionally because the analysis modern-day visible information beside joints, openings, holes, crossing forms, texture, images, and lots of others. 15. among the look international, the progressive fashionable this word talk over with the visual type issue today’s a product. The prevailing version last layout grammar includes 2 easy ideas specifically work factors and form entities 14. Type parts could also be related to material-bodily and configuration problems, when form entities deliver grammar and linguistics practicality to the merchandise type 13.

c) Example of topics for product style analysis
There are 3 examples trendy topics presently end up to be notable for product style analysis in Malaya. The first topic is regarding emblem image and identity. Visible quality contemporary makers and merchandise has return to be a central aggressive issue among numerous product categories. Most businesses develop merchandise with styles that not simplest seem appealing however conjointly bring one amongst a sort references to the „person? trendy the symbol, seem in process core values. Such cost-based? layout functions contain specific or implicit references, and counting on the logo’s strategic technique, is perpetually or flexibly used over the merchandise portfolio. In order that it’ll be higher organized to face the challenges last layout exercise, layout for visible emblem recognition may be a material that wishes to be embraced via new methods conjointly in layout coaching 16. The second material is regarding product layout identification with regards to polymer investigation. The easy part contemporary DNA or polymer is that the ordering. In design, a ordering is that the “life form” entire set genes fashionable polymer 17. In terms progressive definition, its miles one haploid set ultra-modern chromosomes with the genes they comprise. Widely: the genetic cloth ultra-modern Associate in Nursing organism. Among the angle gift day genetic word, the terms check with a whole set last chromosomes additionally {to all or Associate to any or all} of the genetic traits today’s an organism. It consists of all the chromosomes in rank needed to make and maintain that lifestyles type. Most spanking new the look analysis on ordering explores the sequences, maps, chromosomes, assemblies, and annotations. Even, the spanking new automobile styling polymer indicates capability disappearance from this day model and has the power to bring U.S.A. nearer last a style aim. On condition that a layout is subjective in nature; there could also be an issue regarding however designers? created the person traits trendy styling polymer for automobile layout will? The 1/3 material is prepared user perceptions ultra-modern the native product. For this explicit topic, the examine is as the way to explain however merchandise speak with customers 11, 18.

Industry
a) Product (Royal Selangor)
Royal Selangor Company has introduced typical Malay carving motifs as culture and historical past influences that represent Malaysian product layout identity. typical Malay carving motifs is also classified into decorative motifs or designs that are stirred up by early or historic Malay motifs beside the planning pattern with floral motifs, stalks modern-day leaves and tendrils (Awan Larat that truly method oblique clouds) which may be installation within the environment in Malay society additionally to motifs galvanized by suggests that of the imagination ultra-modern early carvers 19 (see Figure 4).

Fig. 4. Traditional Malay woodcarving motifs adorn the sides and lid of this elegant trinket box
b) Fixtures (Ideation Sdn Bhd)
Ideation Sdn Bhd has used way-out wood in concert in each of a supply modern-day cloth to symbolize Malaysian fixtures layout identity. way-out wood is to form superbly completed and polished wood capabilities and furnishings with the help of slicing into and shaping the wood to reveal the very smart patterns among the grain left over the direction modern-day the period ultra-modern the tree. Modern-day the bushes have succumbed to contamination that leaves their own patterns as they unfold through the wood (Figure 5).

Fig. 5. Quirky wood
c) Automotive (Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Sdn Bhd)
Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Sdn Bhd (PROTON) has created Malaysia’s 1st vehicle, the nucleon heroic tale that became ab initio planned as a plan ultra-modern a Malaysian vehicle. Nucleon is knowing its intention up to date being AN internationally successful Malaysian automobile manufacturer. It’s accomplishing this by means of being client oriented and via generating low in price and revolutionary merchandise. As a result, it is causative to Malaysia’s attainment latest vision 2020 20. presently, within the development last nucleon Prevé, if we look at the famous alternatives amongst Proton designers?, the item that represents neighborhood identity via flavouring sources by victimization the utilization of Malayan tiger figure seems given a promising residences/attributes to the characteristics innovative the motor vehicle layout (see make out 6). The Malayan tiger (Panthera Tigris Jackson) could be a tiger race that inhabits the southern and important sections trendy the Malaysian terra firma.

Fig. 6. The Malayan tiger as an influence
Government
a) Malaya style Council
The Malaya layout Council (MRM) position is to own a future modern innovation and layout for Malaya. It leads style packages within the country to strengthen the industry’s style power, abilities, and standards 21. MRM has strived to spice up the powerful characteristic ultra-modern layout and curious in business enterprise, schooling, and government. Although, it goes on with its tries to lift planning strategies and to catapult the power among producers. With the route and suggestions from MRM, Malaysian firms area unit instantaneously ready to move forward and invent a much bigger adherence with their customers through their improved data in making 32012fd371b2d8bbf6e5e631dc96cdaf product. The feature with-it MRM is: 1) to show the industries on the importance ultra-modern pleasant and powerful style management, in product producing, to vie within the open market; 2) to rearrange activities for regionally designers merchandise to be promoted across the world; three) To be a repository latest facts and reference on style with the intention to assist the neighborhood industries to expand their layout abilities; four) To coordinate informative offerings to the industries; 5) To sell programs in enhancing product styles amongst near industries; 6) to market further public awareness stylish high-quality design.

b) Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation
The Ministry latest science, technology, and Innovation (MOSTI) challenge is harnessing technology, era, and Innovation (STI) and human capital to fee-add the agricultural and industrial sectors and to modernize the spanking new financial set-up, particularly via statistics and communications era (ICT), and biotechnology 22. The second broad science and technology coverage provides a framework for improved operation and semi-permanent growth modern the Malaysian economic system. Its guide conjointly product style through 1) boom the broad capability and capability for analysis and development (R&D), era development and acquisition; 2) encourage partnerships among publically funded firms and business still as between neighborhood and foreign companies for the co-development latest technologies if you would like to growing autochthonous era capability; 3) adorn the transformation progressive info into merchandise, processes, offerings or answers that add worth across each enterprise for max socioeconomic gain; 4) role Malaya as a technology supplier among the key strategic info industries; five) Foster social values and attitudes that acknowledge science and era (S&T) as vital to destiny prosperity, that embrace the need for long whole new; 6) ensure that the employment modern S&T accords stress today’s approaches which could be in conformity with property development dreams which incorporates alignment with social norms and ethics; and 7) To develop new information-primarily primarily based industries.

c) Ministry of Education
The Ministry of Education (MOE) within the Interim Strategic arrange 2011-2020 at the Chapter of Innovation and power 23, the goal is to provide innovative and artistic students with the newest skills and information. The target is to make a culture of innovation and power in instructional establishments. The result is 1) Students have the essential thinking, inventive and innovative with the newest knowledge; and 2) Enhancing innovation and power educators. Asian country Deputy Prime Minister, Muhyiddin Mohd Yassin 23 states “…Our goal is to form quality education because the foundation for nurturing an ingenious, innovative and extremely trained in bicycle-built-for-two with the govt to boost the country’s aggressiveness by rising the standard of human capital that’s born of our education system. The success of the new economic model for human capital capability to initiate and explore new areas to get national wealth may be a essential issue, which is able to verify the longer term progress and prosperity of the country.” Among policy that has been paid as a privilege for Malay quality in regard to education is to grow and make sure that books in Malay are offered in its role as an economical instrument within the evolution of thought, social club and culture that is in line with the dreams and desires of the state.

IV. CHALLENGES OF MALAYSIAN PRODUCT DESIGN IDENTITY
A. As for today
Most of the Malaysian product style exists for the aim to fulfill user and technology expectations. Designers? should explore more local item’s design context and should use them as a basis for influence in designing a product. They must be distinctive by their own identity. The tries created by an area company appreciate Royal Selangor, thinking Sdn Bhd, and nucleon have modified the paradigm. The employment of single ethnic culture and heritage like Malay is plausible since the agreement has been created by 3 main ethnics through agreement, Reid Commission (1956) and Malaysia’s Constitution (1957). Malaysian product style identity may be established if all ethnics in agreement to use Malay culture and heritage influences for planning. This will make a product designed by Malaysian designers? towards Malaysian product design identity more reliable. The challenges within the education sector square measure to equip students with the right data and talent for planning a product. At the university level, the inducement appreciate grants and sponsorships may facilitate the research worker to explore, establish and develop helpful tips that may be used as a reference in planning Malaysian product style identity. The findings square measure novel and may be contributed to the body of data. Industries in Asian nation ought to take a challenge to form businesses that have progressive in promoting Malaysian product style identity throughout the globe.

B. Future
The initiative need to be taken by Malaysian designers to promote Malaysian product design identity. Researchers on whole image and identity, vogue in connectedness DNA investigation, and user perceptions of the native product need to be administered at the largest setting. This might be supported by the education, research, industry, and government in terms of opportunities, recognition and financial. The long run challenges in Malaysian product vogue identity are on the responsibility, verification, and validation. Responsibility is that the standard or state of being and conjointly the extent thereto AN experiment, test, or mensuration procedure yields identical results on continual trials. Verification of study results worries with establishing the fact or accuracy and conjointly the fateful and informative power of planned theories, methods, and models. Verification is also looked into the thought of logical verification and verification by acceptance. Validation of study results worries with establishing the association and significance of theories, methods, and models.

V. CONCLUDING REMARKS
In this paper, the issues, transformation, and challenges for Malaysian product vogue identity area unit given. Gazing issues in state vogue context, by referring at the mutual agreement throughout the formation of state between all ethnic preferences, it’s plausible to use Malay ethnic culture and heritage influences into the merchandise as references. The failures of yank to create one USA product what is more as Singapore unit of measurement an indication that it’s toilsome to merge all ethnic influence into one single product vogue identity. The transformation in education, research, industry, and conjointly the govt. need to emphasize on the state vogue policies towards innovation and power. The challenges need to be tested as of these days and future vogue views and also the manner making a national identity of Malay ethnic culture and heritage embedded at Malaysian product vogue appearances consistently in every production through linguistics and grammar interpretations.

VI. REFERENCES
1 Department of Statistics Malaysia. The source of Malaysia?s Official Statistics. Retrieved 30 June 2014 from http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/
2 M.A. Abd Razid, “Mengenali Sejarah dan Asas-asas Perlembagaan Negara.” Kuala lumpur: Jabatan Hal Ehwal Khas, 2011.

3 D.A. Hanks, and A. Hoy, “American Streamlined Design: The World of Tomorrow.” Paris: Flammarion, 2005.

4 R. Loewy, “Raymond Loewy the Father of Industrial Design.” Retrieved 24 June 2014 from
5 http://www.raymondloewy.com/about/bio.html
6 https://www.khairul-syahir.com/topics/national/2008/the-malaysian-social-contract.html7 https://rayaputeh.wordpress.com/8 http://chedet.cc/?p=107