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Desalegn A.(2018), states that palm leaves have many uses such as hats, covers, oil, etc. Apart from these uses, Palm leaves can also be used as a source for textile fiber. In this research he has focused on fiber from Elaeis Genuineness species found in Ethiopia. Characteristics of extracted fibers were evaluated. Fibers were extracted by three methods i.e. manual, water retting and chemical retting. For manual retting the dried leaves were directly combed into fibers where as fresh leaves had to be dried first in oven dryer and then combed. For water retting river water was used as it already contains microorganisms. Both fresh and dried leaves were soaked in water for 15 days and exposed to sunlight. For chemical extraction the leaves were treated at 50°C with 400 ml of 0.5M NaOH in a water bath for 8hrs. The lignin content of fibers extracted from all three methods were tested according to ASTM D1106 standard. Lignin content, cellulose content and hemicellulose content of the fibers were also determined. After extraction, physical and chemical characteristics of the palm leaf fibers were studied. The study included properties like fiber length, fineness, microscopic structure, moisture content, tensile strength, functional group and thermal properties. The length of fiber extracted by water retting was high compared to mechanical retting. The microscopic structure didn’t show much difference. It can be concluded that fiber extracted by water retting process showed better properties in all aspects.
Jain A. (2017), has used corn husk for this study. The husk was cleaned, dried and stored. The extraction was done with alkali, enzyme and bleach. The purpose of study was to know the effect of temperature, time and concentration. For each test one of the mentioned parameters was kept constant and others varied. Same kind of test was carried out for all three methods i.e. alkali, enzyme and bleach. In alkali treatment for temperature, the result obtained at boiling temperature was satisfactory as complete husk got disintegrated and fibers were obtained which were yellowish in color. In case of concentration and time, the fibers obtained with 4 g/l of sodium hydroxide solution with a treatment time of 60 minutes were optimum in terms of strength and fineness. Enzyme treatment showed that increasing concentration of enzyme on the bundle strength of fibers for a treatment time of 30 minutes. Beyond that the strength began to decrease. The fibers did not leave their inherent yellowish tinge, in spite of bleaching higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide. A concentration of 4 g/l sodium hydroxide with a treatment time of 60 minutes at a material to liquor ratio of 1:40 and a temperature of 98 -100?C was finalized for alkalization of cornhusk to extract fibers as the fibers obtained in these conditions were optimum in terms of strength and fineness.
Liu M. (2017), in his research, worked in Hemp fibers in European countries, extracted by Dew retting process. This study deals with comparison between traditional dew retting and microbial retting methods. The hemp samples harvested for the experiment were dried at 40°C before treatment. Experiment was done with P. radiate Cel 26 fungi species for 7, 14 and 20 days at 28°C.
The treated fibers were immersed in 40ml of 20mM citrate buffer with 6.0pH value. Properties such as fiber surface, fineness, tensile properties and chemical composition analysis were done. According to the results, the lignin content of field retted samples was higher than. radiata Cel26 retted samples. Also the fungi retted samples showed better composite properties. As the use of P. radiate Cel26 higher amount of non-cellulosic matted could be degraded thus yielding better strength. Hence, it could be concluded that use of fungal treatment gives pure cellulose at lower cost compared to enzyme treatment.
Rajasekaran T. (2016), for this study, has used three sets of drumstick fibers. One set was treated with 5% NaOH for 1hr and MEKP as catalyst and dried at room temperature for 24hrs. The second set was only water ret without treatment of any chemicals and the third set was treated with HCl. The main aim of this study was the tensile strength of the fiber. The results showed that tensile strength is maximum of NaOH treated fiber. Also the load at peak and Yield strength is found to be highest in NaOH treated fibers. It was concluded that the tensile properties were found to be better in NaOH treated drumstick fiber than in non-treated or HCl treated fibers.
Hulle A. (2015), has extracted Agave Americana, also known as “Pita Fibers”, from plant source. The plant originates from Moscow, Arizona and Texas. For fiber extraction, fresh leaves are cut from the plant. Three methods mainly used are mechanical, chemical and retting. For mechanical extraction simple decortication method is used. Acids, Alkalis and Enzymes were employed for chemical extraction of fibers. Retting of the fibers were done by two methods i.e. Natural retting also known as rot retting which involved microbial process and Enzymatic retting. Pectinases and xylanases were the enzymes used for the study. Results showed that Agave fibers are comparatively longer than sisal fibers. The nature of the fiber was hydrophilic. Burning test result showed that the fiber burnt readily and smelled like burning paper. Due to high tensile strength, Agave fibers were used in manufacturing of twines and fishing ropes. Researches also show that Agave fibers can be used as composites for industrial purpose. Being plant source, Agave fibers are 100% degradable and eco-friendly.