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Far Eastern Federal University School of Biomedicine
“EFFECT OF RAPID GROWTH OF OVER-POPULATION ON THE ECONOMY”
BY:
MANI GOPIKA. (GROUP-4)

INTRODUCTION:
A Population is a group of interbreeding organisms in a specific region .It is analyzed in terms of its variability, density and stability along with environmental and other processes and circumstances that affect these characteristics. Problems of population size and growth, resource utilization and depletion, and environmental deterioration must be considered jointly and on a global basis. In this context, population control is obviously not a panacea-it is necessary but not alone sufficient to see us through the crisis. Population density is a poor measure of population pressure, and redistributing population would be a dangerous pseudo solution to the population problem.
Population growth causes a disproportionate negative impact on the environment. The idea of a causal link between population and resources developed into a more concrete form in the eleventh century. In 1086, William the conqueror commissioned an enumeration of the population and its landed wealth, recording the results in the doomsday book.
“Excessive population growth may reduce output per worker, repress levels of living for the masses and engender strife.”
-Aristotle

RAPID POPULATION GROWTH:
The world’s population growth has touched a mark of 7.3 billion in 2015, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion, “population explosion is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many developed countries have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is birth rates have fallen to bellow 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. This was nearly twice as compared to the developing countries. At the current rate of population growth, world population would reach 9-12 billion before the year of 2050.
PROBLEMS THAT AFFECT THE WORLD TODAY BY OVER-POPULATION:

The problems we have today such as war, crime, food shortages, water shortages, water pollution, and air pollution; global warming and unemployment are the effects of over-population. The more people there are the more resources consumed and the more waste created on the land. The increase in over-population causes employ mental problems and the people migrate from place to place for getting jobs for their daily needs. According to survey India is the first country which has over-population, so most of the peoples migrate to other developed countries for their employment. If the population increases people suffer to get their daily needs. And the forest is destroyed mainly due to over-population. They destroyed the forest for constructing building and mostly constructions. The people use motor bike, and other vehicles and burning fossil fuels that creates global warming.
The distribution of population is influenced by a number of physical, chemical and economical factors. The acumen areas of the world with a congenial climate and fertile soils are highly favorable for human occupancy. Areas of harsh climate- too hot, too cold, too humid or drier, rugged relief and low in resources are the non-acumen areas. These are the areas where the natural environment is not conductive for human occupancy.

REASONS FOR THE EXPLOSION:
The main reason for slow and fluctuating population growth prior to early 1800’s was the prevalence in epidemiology disease such as small pox, mumps, and measles and scarlet fever. In addition, epidemics, diphtheria of diseases such as typhoid, cholera, jaundice, diphtheria and plague and chicken pox washed out many of the large number of adults and families. Most of the peoples where die due to attack of newly disease without discovery of the medicines. Reproductive rates were largely equalized by high mortality of peoples.

Since the 19th century:
Discoveries of vaccination give protection to many of the diseases, infectious agent and pathogens.
Discoveries of antibiotics are successful discoveries in a medical history.

Agricultural techniques are well improved. Nutrition is improved and every person maintains their personal sanitation and hygiene.

It causes spectacular reductions in mortality, especially among infants and children, so it causes increases in birth rate. Human population is to remain high in crowd. It entered in to exponential growth. After the new medicines and industrial revolution, the death rate is decreased and birth rate is increased, so the human population growth rate is maintain high and results as over-population. People should subdivide their farms and lands among the children (or) intensifying their cultivations of existing land to increase production per unit area. Increasing population especially affects women and children. Over-population causes effects to the environment both positively and negatively.

CONCLUSION:
It is possible that we can prevent humanity from ever reaching 9 billion people-without child quotes or violating human or civil rights.

According to world watch institute president Robert Engelmann in his book, moving toward sustainable prosperity, there are at least steps to control or stop the over-population, without drastic population control measures,
Provide universal access to safe and effective contraceptive methods for both female and male preventing from over-population. With two in five pregnancies reported as mistimed or never wanted, lack of access to good family planning services is among the biggest gaps in assuring that each baby will be wanted and welcomed in advance by its parents. Guarantee education through secondary school for all, especially girls. In every culture surveyed to date, women who have completed at least some secondary school have fewer children on average, and have children in future than do women who have less education. Eradicate gender bias from law, economic opportunity, health, and culture. Offer age-appropriate sexuality education for all students. End all policies that reward parents financially based on the number of children they have.
“The Greatest Threat to Human Existence Is Our Own Lack of Ability to Control Our Own Growth”
-MARKSWATSON

REFERANCE:
Effects of rapid population growth on labor supply and employment- Bloom, 381-414.
Bloom D. E (2011). Population dynamics in India and implications for economic growth.