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Introduction
Tobacco use is a major public health problem worldwide and it is the most important cause of preventable death and illness(1). According to the WHO report of 2011 on smoking, about five million people are at risk of dying every year because of smoking and this figure is expected to rise to 10 million by the year 2020 or early 2030 if the current trends of smoking continue, with seventy percent of the deaths occurring in developing countries(2).
Globally, it is estimated that about 1.1billion people smoke making a total tobacco smoking prevalence of 21%, and this global prevalence of smoking is decreasing globally, down for a 23%, the global prevalence of tobacco use in 2007(3). Unfortunately, African countries are experiencing a rise in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco use attributed by socio-demographic transition with adoption of western lifestyles. This will expose them to many risk factors such as smoking especially(4).
The use of tobacco product and smoking in general are habits that are usually acquired during the early years of life, a period of experimentation and it is estimated that every day between three to five thousand youth try their first cigarette and for those that are smokers, 9 out of 10 of them tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years(5). When adolescents start to smoke early in life, the likelihood is that they will continue smoking as adults and this will expose them to certain forms of cancers and cardiovascular diseases later in life that could be very debilitating.
Because of the effects of smoking on health like in cardiovascular diseases and cancers like lung cancer (6)and the changing life styles of youths in Africa especially Mozambique that have led to a rise in smoking habits in this country probably due to western influence, it is necessary to constantly do surveys on smoking and the use of tobacco to evaluate the effectiveness of current tobacco control programs and design new ones based on the identified new risk factors.
Also, there is limited and somewhat outdated data on the use of tobacco in Mozambique.
So, our general objective was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and second-hand smoking exposure in young adults aged 12 to 17 years in Mozambique and measure the association between parental tobacco use, second hand smoking and tobacco use in young adults in this population.
Our specific objectives were to determine:
• Prevalence of tobacco use in young adults aged 12 to 17 years in Mozambique in 2018.
• Prevalence of second hand smoke exposure in this population.
• Determine the association between parental use, second hand smoke exposure and tobacco use in young adults.