Limited ice plants, lack of dry fish making sectors with modern infrastructural facility, lack of proper dumping facility, marketing facility are some major factors related with the development of dry fish making industry and its advancement. The drying of fish still follows traditional method i.e. drying of fish on sands, but the demand of sand dried fish has been reduced with time. So the fishermen traders need concrete platforms to dry the fishes, i.e. still have not constructed. A statement published in a report of WebIndia123 ,on the problems of lack of infrastructure, reflects the problems faced by the fishermen producing dry fishes “We now require a concrete floor to dry our fish. But this facility is not available. Because of this, the colour of the fish changes (Basand Ali Khan, 2007).There is lack of such drying plants that can work in days without suitable sun ray. As the sun drying process depends on the solar radiation so it will not proceed in a same rate throughout the day. This leads to low quality products. As such, platforms are still unavailable, so maximum villagers place the fishes on the metalled road to dry. From Atashpur to Maharudrapur of Remuna Block such drying has been noticed on the metalled road.
Except this, the absence of proper market is a major lack of infrastructure. The proper and direct dispatch becomes difficult and the middle man plays a significant role. This forces the fisherman to sale the products cheaply to the middlemen. The middlemen in the market channel play a crucial role in determining the net share of the fishermen. It is mainly due to the fact that more than 75 percent of the total marine fish catch are actually consumed at distant places. A large number of intermediaries are involved in the process. This can be checked by vertical integration in the marketing process
(source: http://agmarknet.nic.in/Marine_Fish.htm). mention no.of schemes and their types. table as appendix
6.2.7 Existing and proposed schemes. As significant land resource utilization, fishing can be considered as most suitable for improving the standard of living. Numbers of schemes have been implemented to enhance the culture (Appendix 6.13). This includes-
i) Development of Brackish water Aquaculture with the objectives for renovation of ponds, establishment of demonstration cum training programmes, Network of Diagnostic Laboratories for Aquatic Animal health etc.
ii) Development of Waterlogged area with the objective to develop water logged area.
iii) Development of Inland Fisheries & Aquaculture with the objectives of construction of new ponds/ tanks, renovation of pond/ tank, fresh water fish seed hatchery, fish feed unit, establishment of freshwater prawn seed hatchery.
iv) Fisheries scheme implemented under National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB): this scheme includes a) intensive aquaculture in ponds, b) Reservoir Fisheries Development (RFD), c) Coastal aquaculture: For the development of coastal aquaculture, construction of ponds for brackish water fin fish culture is being encouraged through subsidies. Cage culture of brackish water fin fish in ponds and open waters with Rs. 10.00 lakh / ha costing with 25% unit cost subject to a maximum of 2.50lakhs/ha as subsidy. d) Mariculture : i) Training on marine ornamental fish culture, ii) Assistance for setting up of Open Sea cage culture units by fishermen groups. iii) Setting up of open sea cage culture by companies. iv) Promotion of diversification by shrimp hatcheries to take up seed production of finfish species of commercial importance.
v) Development of Domestic Fish Marketing
i) Setting up of Solar drying of fish units, ii) Platform for Sun drying of fish , iii) Training and demonstration to fisherwomen on hygienic handling of fish and processing /value addition iv) Campaign for promotion of fish products and consumption, v) Cold chain development and processing of value added products, vi) Retailing by fisherwomen Modernization of wholesale fish markets.
vi) Establishment of freshwater prawn seed hatchery
ii) Capacity: 5-8 million PL/year Entrepreneurs/farmers
vii) Establishment of fish seed hatchery: Establishment of fish seed hatcheries with/ without/nurseries 7-8 million (fry) Capacity/year.
viii) Infrastructure: Fishing Harbours and Landing Centers: i) development of native tuna fishing fleet by NFDB support boats Rs/- 75 lakh including gear component. Ii) Human resource development with 100% financial assistance as per NFDB guidelines. Iii) Up-gradation of processing units
Except this Human resource development programme can also be a significant step to look forward. (Source: Salient Features of the Schemes under Inland Sector (2017)
The schemes and development policies for the fishermen are taken by the Government. And steps following that are also implemented or will be implemented. Some of such schemes, policies and steps already taken are as follows. This will help to understand the progress that has taken place in fishery sector.
• PFZ or Potential fishing Zones boards which were installed under UNDP assistance in Bahabalpur and Balaramgadi, Chandipur
• Biometric Identity Cards for the fishermen.
• Development of Approach Roads /Such a road has been planned in Talsari worth 19.34 crores.
• Dighirihanis farm of Balasore district has been selected for Brood Stock Development Programme and Jayanti ruhu propagation and selective breeding as a step of Research and development activities in state fish farms during the session 2009-10.
• The Orissa Fishermen Policy
• Matsajinbi Unnayan Yojana
• Vision 2020 has been focusing on becoming a pioneer in aquaculture development. The main target has been given on ensuring food security. This will also encourage employment, livelihood generation as well as ensure welfare.
• Realistic resource management by using remote sensing and Geographic information system is needed to be implemented. This will help to understand the detailed status of the existing inland water resource.
• Open water bodies like Kata, irrigation tanks, percolation tanks and reservoirs can be used for fish culture. In Odisha State Reservoir Fisheries Policy 2012 such option has been given for reservoir fisheries management and its development. Registered primary fisherman co operative societies, Pani Panchayat, and authorized self help groups will get preference.
• Aquaculture in tanks and ponds to enhance fish production. For pisciculture minor irrigation area below 40 ha water area will be given for lease for a period not less than 5 years.
• Various development programmes like ATMA, OCTMP,NMSA, RIDF, RKVY etc are needed to work together to promote the aquaculture in the state as well as district.
• For fish seed production and certification cluster approach (CA) on PPP mode can apply to suitable areas. Government of India guideline 2010 should be applied to ensure the certification of the quality of fish seed produced.
• Ornamental fish culture should be expanded through sustainable coastal aquaculture. For this the Government owned brackish water areas suitable for coastal aquaculture needed to be allotted to the fisheries cooperatives, self help groups, private entrepreneurs, unemployed youths etc.
• Co-management and community involvement for fisheries management in Marine sector is implemented.
• The training programme of 180 hrs has been provided to the unemployed and interested youth to become fish farmers. For this they have to qualify in the ‘training programme on scientific pisciculture practice’ and the qualification will be awarded by Directorate of Fisheries. Progression of the fish farmers can be achieved by the progression of the qualification.
• In Balasore there are 955 progressive farmers who have covered 505.84 acres for pisciculture. Within twelve blocks Balasore sadar solely share of 34.76% of total number of fish farmers is progressive, In Bahanaga block this share becomes 10.89%. In Jaleswar, Nilagiri, Khaira, Remuna, and Oupada the share of progressive farmers are less than 5%. The limited or unexpanded pisciculture for lack of suitable environment is the basic cause behind this.
• Schemes with ongoing components:
Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (FFDA’s) – ongoing component includes-
Construction of new ponds, reclamation/ renovation of ponds/ tanks, cost of inputs, Running Water Fish Culture , Integrated Fish Farming, aerators/pumps, Fresh water Fish Seed hatchery, fish seed units, establishment of laboratories, soil and water testing to each FFDA, setting up of integrated units, transportation of fish/prawn seed etc.
Development of Brackish water Aquaculture (BFDA): the focus has been given on the renovation or construction of brackish water fish farms, for training of shrimp farmers, establishment of demonstration cum training center.
Cold water fisheries and Aquaculture: Preparation of resource survey report/ feasibility report, Short term investigations, breeding or rearing etc, construction, renovation, extension or remodeling of fish farms, Farming units for coldwater fish species and first year inputs, Units for running water fish culture, Training of fish farmers, Purchase of vehicle.
Development of Waterlogged areas:
Inputs (fish /prawn) seed, feed, manure, fertilizers, preventing measures for disease, transportation charges, etc.), training and focusing on the development of the water logged area
Productive utilization of Inland Saline/ Alkaline Waters for Aquaculture: Cost for construction, input cost and training are functioned.
Inland capture fisheries (Reservoir/ Rivers): Fish Seed rearing units Cages/ pens with inputs, Training, Craft and gear(nets, boats etc.), Construction of landing centres, Riverine Fisheries Conservation and Awareness Programmes.
With proper subsidy and implementation of the scheme implementing fresh water, brackish water prawn culture and other aquaculture the implementation of SHG can be generated. The dry fish making industry can also be maintained through proper management. Increasing hygiene, transparency, and proper marketing steps will also help the villagers specifically women to become economically independent and stable