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INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.1.1 CANCER BURDEN IN THE WORLD
Globally the 2nd leading cause of deaths is cancer, responsible for approximately 9.6 million deaths. {WHO, 2018}.it is caused by unregulated growth of cells. They can affect any part of the body. When this cells grows beyond boundaries they affect various parts of the body and spread to other biological organs. Several factors have led to increased cancer burden ,these are population growth, ageing, changes of diet, nutrition and physical activities(Michelle,WRF,2018).42 million people globally are suffering from all the types of cancer this number however has increased since 1990 where the population suffering with cancer was 19 million (Max & Hannah,2015-2018).The estimates of different forms of cancer as per our word data in 2016.Breast cancer prevalence was the leading estimated at 8 million;6.3 million had colon &rectum ;5.7 million with prostate and over 2.8 million tracheal and bronchus and lung cancer .Globally majority of cancer occurs for those aged 50 and above.1% of cancer globally occurs at children and adolescents aged 14 years and under. For gender cases lung and breast cancer are the most diagnosed cancers and are the most leading causes of deaths .In men and women liver and stomach cancers are the most often diagnosed in the lower class countries. (Torre et al.2015) .The poorly developed countries have been in the receiving end for the high prevalence of cancer, this is due to increased population, exposure to high cancer risk factors aging population.
1.1.2 CANCER BURDEN IN AFRICAN
In Africa the burden of cancer has been increasing tremendously. In 2012 8.2 million worldwide were estimated to have died from cancer where by greater than 2/3 were from Africa. Cancer of the cervix, breast, liver and prostate is the most prominent in African countries. Annually there are more than 600,000 cancer deaths in Africa. In developing countries in Africa, there will be an increase in cancer cases in the next ten years.
1.1.3 CANCER BURDEN IN KENYA
Cancer is the third leading cause of deaths in Kenya. There was 37,000 new cancer cases and 28500 cancer deaths in Kenya in the year 2012 (Ministry of health Kenya, 2012). According to KEMRI it reported that 80% cancer cases in the country are diagnosed at advanced stages. According to data collected from the year 2014 -2016 by cancer institution, the cancer Texas centre reports that Nairobi is the leading with cancer burden in the country. It is true that cancer afflicts many Kenyans year in year out, and therefore in the next 20 years Kenyan no 1 killer will be cancer (FR. Nyongesa 2016). More women in Kenya are treated for cancer as compared to men (KNH,2018). Reports reveals that in a year there are about 2,233 more women being treated as compared to men. This rate is due to the fact that women have higher rates of obesity (Ministry of health 2014-2018). also the use of birth control pills may be fuelling the high rates of cancer in women.
1.1.4 USES OF PLANTS FOR TREATMENT
Different types of plants are used for herbalism and some of the plants contain medicinal activity. (Bassam, 2012). This plants contain ingredients that could be used in drug development. Plants have been used for treatment for many years. Research reveals that many developing countries have been depending on plants and practioners in order to meet their health needs. Plants contain raw materials for manufacturing of modern day medicines. Many people are seeking herbal remedies for treating minor ailments. (Motaleb, M. A, et.al.2011). According to WHO, it is estimated that 4 billion people globally use medicinal plants to meet their care health needs. This acknowledgement of paramount medicinal use attracted the attention of WHO to produce 28 standard pharmacopoeia documentation information on selected plants (Gossell, 2006). The interest of use of medicinal plants, lead to the development of new classification of therapeutic known as nutraceutical (De Felise, 1989).These are the parts of the plant that provide medicinal benefits, such as prevention of diseases.
1.2 PLANTS AS A SOURCE OF ANTI-CANCER AGENTS
In history plants have been used for treatment of cancer. There are more than 3,000 plants that were reported to be used for treatment of cancer. (Hartwell,1982). They are the most desired because they are natural and readily available. They are less toxic to human cells plants derived compounds have played a major role in development of anti-cancer agents. For example, vinblastine, vincristine and topotecan.In. In 1950’s the search of anticancer agents began. Approximately over 60% anti-cancer agents used currently are obtained from natural sources, for example the marine organisms, micro-organism and more so the plants. Episode ; tenipisode which are natural products derivatives are considered to be semi-synthetic are closely linked to a plant originally known for treatment of cancer (Lee ; Xiao,2015).

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the past decades there have been a remarkable advance in science that have generated better treatment of cancer. There is a high optimism that various types of cancer will be cured. Cancer development pathways can be blocked by targeting mutations of cancer cells. However, cancer treatment can come with effects such as toxicity, some patients also can be resistant to drugs and eventually die. Therefore, balanced balancing the risk and the benefit must be considered and evaluated. In addition, cancer treatment can be much expensive. All this effects makes it clear that new studies must be done to avoid the high cost and the effects caused by the treatment. This study focused on determining anti-cancer constituents of solanecio nandensis used for treatment of cancer, used around the Kakamega tropical rainforest of Kakamega County

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1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
In many countries in the world cancer has been a leading killer disease, as compared to other diseases in developing and developed countries. Strategies have been put in place to curb the cancer burden .one of the strategies is to use plant-derived compounds to prevent cancer.so far in Kenya a community in Kakamega county have been using a plant known as solanecio nandensis for the treatment of cancer. There is an urgent need to critically investigate and research these types of plants in order to provide scientific information on its ability to treat cancer.
1.5 HYPOTHESIS
Secondary metabolites do not perform vital physiological functions as primary compounds.
1.6 OBJECTIVES
1.6.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES
To isolate the secondary metabolites of solanecio nandensis with invitro cancer activities.
1.6.1 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
1: To isolate pure compounds of active solvent extracts of solanecio nandensis
2: To determine the structures of anti-cancer compounds using UV, MS, and IR
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Distribution of family asteraceae
Asteraceae formerly known as compositae has been reported to be the largest family of higher plants, possessing approximately 1700 genera and approximately 24000 species (cantero,2009).It is found in most parts of the world but not in the Antarctica and the extreme arctic. They are numerous in subtropical regions namely, central America, the Mediterranean, Levant parts of middle east, south Africa and south west china (panero 2006). they are herbaceous but most are shrubs, vines or trees (backley,2010)

2.2 medicinal uses of family asteraceae
For many decades’ members of asteraceae family have shown pharmacological activities which had phytochemical compounds for instance polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids and anti-inflammatory (erthark,2003). different studies have shown the antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, insecticide and anti-tumour
2.3 medicinal uses of species solanecio nandensis
Artemisia annua is a species in the family of asteraceae family, it is found in china locally known as qinghao (Gray, 1884). It is widely used as medicinal plant (Bailey, 1976). Recently it has been commercially grown as in different parts of African countries. (Klyman,1973). The plant produces artemisinin derivatives normally used as an antimalarial drug. (Duke et al.1987). In china artemisinin is used as an antimalarial drug effective against plasmodium (Chen et al .1991). Clinically the effectiveness of artemisinin and its derivatives by a rapid and immediate reduction of Parasitemia due to treatment. Parasitemia is a parasite causing malaria. Aromatherapy is one of the known uses Artemisia annua which is the remedy for fever and boosting of the immune system due to its antiviral and antifungal properties, people suffering from bladder infections use this Artemisia (nootriment,2018).
Saussurea Lapp is found in Himalaya; it belongs to the family asteraceae. has the ability to fight against myocardial injury which is related to heart attacks (Dr. Upedra, 2013). In 2004 a bulletin revealed that a test was done on human genetic cancer cells and it revealed that Saussurea lappa have the capacity to suppress growth of tumours, also it is a remedy for liver diseases (phototherapy research ,2010). Solanecio nandensis
2.1 phytochemical and biological activities of genus solanecio nandensis
Screening of the aerial part of solanecio nandensis showed presence of saponins, essential alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids (mebark, 2016). The plants products that derived from leaves, roots, flowers and barks are some of the phytomedicines. The barks of solanecio nandensis contained this products (Van et al,2009). Also the aerial parts of these plants showed the presence of lanolin 4-O-glucoside, 4,5 dicaffeoylquinic acid, crypto chloric genic acid. The structures were elucidated using UV light. Also in the leaves alkaloids and flavonoids were present (jithu, 2017). originally artemisinin was the active solanecio nandensis anticancer compound (javed, 2017). But for now various other compounds may also contribute, the anticancer activity is due to interaction between compounds multiple constituents of the extract (Arkhipovet al.2014)
In recent years’ research to identify the bioactive metabolites, which resulted in isolation of saponins of furostane, spirostane, cholestane and oleane-type of structures. Some of the isolated compounds shown the ability to fight ant proliferative, antifungal, antiplasmodial activities. Phenolic compounds were identified in the aerial parts and the roots, for instance flavonoids and coumarins were also isolated (malinalli,2001). The compounds encompass, flavanones, flavanonols, flavones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, isoflavonoids, chalcones and aurone (sareedenchai,2010).

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