Progress Report 1
Projek Sarjana MudaSupervisor: DR. MD ISA BIN ALI
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
The rapid increases energy request all over the world because of the advancement of population, rising expectation of everyday comforts and the expanded technological activities additionally caused huge amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission CITATION Edw17 l 17417 (Edward Fostera, 2017). In addition, asset on the ground such as carbon which 80% of the overall energy usage is depended on is quickly diminishingCITATION SHM15 l 17417 (Mohr a, 2015). It also well known, the usage of petroleum fuel has the greatest effect on our day by day transportation in (land, air, and ocean), control plants, advancement in each nation in the world and industrial works. Furthermore, the used of petroleum fuel is also mainly restricted due to their sulphur content which causes erosion and ecological contamination. Additionally, petroleum fuel sources are likewise the primary explanation behind the climatic destruction. Discharge of toxic gases utilizing petroleum derivatives such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are found to create atmospheric impact, air pollution and corrosive rain.

As the interest rises suddenly, the petroleum derivatives are vanishing at the comparative rate. Besides, petroleum fuels sources utilization has some side on affecting our health issues. With presentation of CO (which is the main discharge gases in petroleum fuels) can cause cerebral pain, wooziness, and vomiting. The other main discharge gases are NOx and SO2, which can cause asthma and heart-assault individually.

Use of diesel oil is on the top of gasoline products because of high potency of diesel engines over different internal combustion engines. Therefore, several studies focussed to replace fossil diesel fuels with renewable fuels which are more eco-friendly known as bio-diesel. Bio-diesel is usually coming from plants oil (e.g., soybean, cottonseed, palm, peanut, sunflower, coconut), animal fats (usually tallow) or alternatives agricultural merchandise all around our surrounding.

Biodiesel consist of a combination of fatty acids monoalkyl esters (FAME) coming from production of vegetable oils or animal fats with a brief of alcohol, like methyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol and catalysed by acids or bases (usually NaOH or KOH). Compared to diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel cut usage of carbon monoxide gas and hydrocarbons emission and decreasing smoke formation CITATION Cri18 l 17417 (Cristina Duesoa, 2018).

Essentially, rice bran oil (RBO) is a vegetable oil, which is extricated from rice bran, the result of rice. Inferable from positive unsaturated fats, RBO is a standout amongst the most nutritious oils with remarkable blend of normally happening natural dynamic and cancer prevention agent mixes. While sunflower oil (SFO) is made from sunflower seed. Oilseed sunflower is rapidly picking up attention as feedstock edit for biodiesel in light of the fact that it imparts a few positive agronomic compare to other basic oil harvest such as canola and soy. Other than that, due to high oil substance sunflower seed, frequently more than 40%, it stands out to become as biofuel edit.
Reliance of the fossil fuels throughout the world in industrial sector and transportation make these resources become highly in demand nowadays. As a result, the price of these fossil fuels becomes higher due to their limited condition. Diesel and coal may appear to be very practical fossil fuels however they are ecological threatening. The emission discharge from the fossil fuels is the purpose for unnatural weather change and ozone pulverization.

Therefore government all over the globe are forcing the employment of biodiesel which may scale back the emission that been discharge within the air. Biodiesel which area unit experimental modified from vegetable oils area unit primary substitution for original diesel fuels. However experimental testing by using totally vegetables oil in diesel engines was conduct and the result seem to be failing as a result of it higher viscousness. Thus to produce a good biodiesel the combination of vegetables oils and diesel fuel should follow the ratios that are created and also the method of combustion and fuel injection system must fully perceive.

In this research, rice bran and sunflower were selected as the main substitute to be biodiesel because it was easier to find in the markets due to the popularity of these two sources as cooking oils.

In Malaysia the likelihood to used rice bran oil is higher. This is because the economic process of paddy rice in Malaysia roughly calculable over 2.5 million tons which is it can create in excess of 250000 MT rice bran. Moreover, rice bran additionally comprises 60% of nutritive value which is good and eco-friendly to our environment.

In the meantime, sunflower grab unimaginable potential for reconciliation oil diesel utilize, particularly at the homestead scale. This is because sunflower yields well in different circumstances, and can be developed easily and gainfully in a little and bigger homestead. Other than have a high grade cooking oil, sunflower likewise share a identical oil structure with other vegetable oil such as soy and safflower Because of this causes, sunflower oil might be utilized as biodiesel with the end goal to get identical properties from soy biodiesel..1.3 OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the study are mentioned as:
To produce Rice Bran Oil Biodiesel (RBOBD) and Sunflower Oil Biodiesel (SFOBD).

To test performance of RBOBD and SFOBD compared with diesel fuels.

To test emissions properties such as CO, and NOx that been discharged.

The scopes of the research are listed below:
Prepare the biodiesel blend percentage of 20% RBOBD and 80% of diesel and prepare the biodiesel blend percentage of 20% SFOBD and 80% of diesel.

Carry out testing performance such as power, torque, and fuel consumption of RBOBD and SFOBD with variation of rpm.
Carry out emission test which includes CO, NOx, and HC.

Biodiesel function is same as conventional diesel fuel. It tends to be utilized specifically in diesel applications or it very well may be mixed with diesel. Biodiesel mixes are classified within the type of “BXX” wherever “B” stands for biodiesel and “XX” demonstrates its mix proportion e.g. “B50” shows 50% of biodiesel while the remaining 50% is mixed with diesel. This research explain the changed of rice bran oil (RBO) into rice bran oil biodiesel (RBOBD) and sunflower oil into sunflower oil biodiesel (SFOBD) with analysing a few properties such as density, and kinematic viscosity mixed with diesel.

Biodiesel Percentage of plant oil % Percentage of diesel %
RBOBD 20% 80%
SFOBD 20% 80%
Some testing will be conducted in order to know the performance of biodiesel that were produced such as;
Brake power test
Torque test
Fuel consumption test
To obtained engine performance data such as brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption, and emission, this analysis were evaluated at different engine speeds starting from range 1000 rpm up to 3000 rpm with constant load. The types of testing were divided into two categories such as:
Performance test:
Torque against rpm.

Brake power against rpm
Brake specific fuel consumption against rpm.

Emission test:
NOx against rpm.

CO against rpm.1.6 REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY l 17417 1. Abdurrahman Saydut a, ?. S. (2016). Process optimization for production of biodiesel from hazelnut oil,. Fuel 183, 512-517.

2. Ahmed Probudha Hasana, *. M. (2014). Prospect of rice bran for biodiesel production in Bangladesh. Procedia Engineering 90, 724-752.

3.Cristina Duesoa, M. M.-L. (2018). Performance and emissions of a diesel engine using sunflower biodiesel with. Fuel 234, 276-285.

4. Edward Fostera, b. M. (2017). The unstudied barriers to widespread renewable energy deployment: Fossil. Energy Policy 103, 258-264.

5. S.H. Mohr a, ?. J. (2015). Projection of world fossil fuels by country. Fuel 141, 120-135.

Sales, A. (2011). Production of biodiesel from sunflower.