Menu
s
0 Comments

RESULTS
1) Graph 1 – Bar diagram showing age and sex wise distribution of study sample.

Age (years)
Mean 55.80
Std. Error of Mean 1.581
Std. Deviation 15.81
Range 69
Minimum 16
Maximum 85

Mean age of study sample is 55.8 years with standard deviation of 15.81 years, with the highest 85 yrs and lowest 16 years. There were 71 (71%) males and 29 (29%) females in the study. 36 samples were from 61-75 years age group followed by 33 subjects in 46-60 years age group. No significant difference was observed between mean ages ofgender (p = 0.143).
2) Pie chart showing frequency distribution according diagnosis.

There were 51 (51%) bronchial asthma subjects among study samples, while 49 (49%) were having COPD.

3) Pie chart showing frequency distribution of study sample according to smoking history.

Above pie chart shows that, there history was smoking was present in more COPD Subjects (61%) than bronchial asthma subjects (31%). There was association between smoking history and diagnosis of subjects (p = 0.003).
4) Pie chart showing frequency distribution of study sample according to inhalation device used.

There were 32 (32%) study samples using DPI single dose inhalation device, followed by 31(31%) PMDI device. 30 (30%) were using PMDI with spacer while 7 (7%) were using DPI multi dose inhalation device.

5) Bar diagram showing method of instruction given touse inhalation device.

Above bar diagram shows that, demonstration was given in 53 (53%) subjects regarding inhalation technique, while in 47 (47%) subjects verbal instructions were given. Demonstration was required more in PMDI with spacer & DPI multi dose, while verbal instructions required more in DPI single dose & PMDI.

Mode of Instruction Incorrect Steps Correct Steps Marginal Row Total
Verbal 146 241 387
Demonstration 101 336 437
Marginal Column totals 247 577824 (Grand Total)
Chi square test result shows that, less the mistake done when instruction mode was Demonstration than Verbal . There was significant difference between the modes of instruction and the result of steps of Inhalation(correct/incorrect), difference was statistically highly significant. P value is =0.000005.The result is significant at P <0.05
6) Bar diagram showing distribution according to instructor of inhalation technique.

Above bar diagram shows that, Mostly chest physician (22%) was instructor in PMID with spacer while General Practioner (22%) was mostly the instructor in DPI single dose.
7) Bar diagram showing method of instruction given touse inhalation device.

Bar diagram shows that, Demonstration method of instruction was more preferred by chest physician than verbal method. While General Practioner and physicians preferred verbal method of instruction regarding use of device.

8) Table showing frequency of inhalation technique steps(Correct/Incorrect) with respect to instructor of inhalation devices in study samples.

Instructor Incorrect Steps Correct Steps Row Total
Chest Physician 58 256 314
General Practitioner 99 189 288
Physician 90 132 222
Column Total 247 577 824(Grand Total)
Chi square test result shows that, less the mistake was done by chest physician instructed subjects, than General Practitioner & Physician. There was significant difference between instructor and result of steps of inhalation, difference was statistically highly significant. P value is <0.00001.The result is significant at P<0.05
9) Table showing frequency of inhalation technique steps with respect to inhalation devices followed in study sample
Step Interpretation DPI Multi Dose DPI Single Dose PMDI PMDI with Spacer Total
Remove Cap/Cover Correct 7 32 31 30 100
Shake the Inhaler Correct 0 0 15 20 35
Not Correct 0 0 16 10 26
Not Included 7 32 0 0 39
Insert inhaler in spacer Correct 0 0 0 27 27
Not Correct 0 0 0 3 3
Not Included 7 32 31 0 70
Place of Capsule in chamber Correct 0 31 0 0 31
Not Correct 0 1 0 0 1
Not Included 7 0 31 30 68
Press the spike button Correct 0 28 0 0 28
Not Correct 0 4 0 0 4
Not Included 7 0 31 30 68
Load the drug by pressing lever/twisting grip around till click heard Correct 4 0 0 0 4
Not Correct 3 0 0 0 3
Not Included 0 32 31 30 94
Exhale before inhaling Correct 4 8 12 18 42
Not Correct 3 24 19 12 58
Place the mouthpiece between teeth without gap Correct 7 27 26 27 87
Not Correct 0 5 5 3 13
Breath in deeply after loading drug/Inhaler dose in the spacer Correct 5 20 0 17 42
Not Correct 2 12 0 13 27
Not Included 0 0 31 0 31
Breath in & release 1 dose simultaneously by pressing canister Correct 0 0 8 0 8
Not Correct 0 0 23 0 23
Not Included 7 32 0 30 69
Breadth Hold Correct 4 6 15 14 39
Not Correct 3 26 16 16 61
Exhale in spacer, inhale &Hold breath again Correct 0 0 0 20 20
Not Correct 0 0 0 10 10
Not Included 7 32 31 0 70
Remove the inhaler and Breath out Correct 7 29 26 30 92
Not Correct 0 3 5 0 8
Open to check leftover powder Correct 0 22 0 0 22
Not Correct 0 10 0 0 10
Not Included 7 0 31 30 68
Out of the 100 subjects,the maximum mistakes committed which was common for all the devices was that 61(61%) subjects had short breath hold after inhaling the drug from device,while 2nd most common mistake was 58 subjects (58%)did not exhale to residual volume before inhaling the drug.

In the PMDI devices with or without spacer ,32 subjects(52.45%) of subjects had short breadth hold while second most common error was not exhaling before inhaling in 31 subjects (50.81%).The third and a major mistake was that 26(42.62%)Subjects didn’t shake the inhaler before use.

In PMDI devices without spacer the major issue was of hand breadth coordination where 23 subjects (74.19%)committed error and did not have proper coordination.It was followed by short breadth hold and not shaking the inhaler where in both steps 16(51.61%) subjects committed mistakes.
In the PMDI with spacer ,16 subjects(53.33%) of subjects had short breadth hold while second most common error was unable to breathe in deeply from the spacer in 13subjects(43.33) and the third common error was not exhaling before inhaling in 12 subjects (40%).

In DPI devices the maximum mistakes committed which was that 29(74.35%) subjects had short breath hold after inhaling the drug from device, while 2nd most common mistake was 27subjects (64.10%)did not exhale to residual volume before inhaling the drug.