Table of contents
Contents page Number
1. Introduction 2
2. Background (give context to the problem) 2
3. Statement of the problem 2
4. Motivation/rationale 3
5. Aim and objectives 4-5
6. Literature review 5-7
7. Study area 8
8. Research design 9
9. Methodology and analysis 9-10
10. Limitations 10
11. References 11-12
Determining the factors influencing transport and mobility patterns in the City of Tshwane, Gauteng province.
It has become every country’s objective to reach sustainability more especially in developing countries. Bruntland (1987) defines sustainability as the development that meets the needs of the currents generation without comprising the ability of the future generation to meet their own. Cities play a major role in every country’s development. It has been noticed that more than half of the world’s population lives in cities and this number is expected to double around 2030 (united nations population fund, 2007), the 21st century can be characterised as the “urban Millennium” where the functioning of cities has great influence on the future of human kinds( united nations population fund, 2007). For a city to be sustainable transport must be accessible to all the residents residing in it. Transport is a major economic, social and environmental challenge to the functioning of a city. Most developed cities are dominated by the use of private cars, which is noticeable by the increase in traffic congestion and imposing significant and increasing environmental and economic costs to the city. Car exhaust is one of the major contributors of greenhouse gases, thus sustainable cities must be one that do not pose health problems to humans (Arnott and Small, 1994). In order to address such problems transport patterns within cities need to be investigated. The South African government have been promoting the use of public transport within urban areas, but to this end that has not been achieved therefore investigating on the human traits and identifying what influences their choices in choosing the mode of transport to use in daily activities is of fundamental importance as this information can help improve on the general transport feeling.
For a country to achieve sustainability the cities must not rely more on private transport but rather they should rely on public transport. Sustainable transport supports a competitive economy and regional development .it also promotes equality (Toth-Szabo et al, 2011). South Africa is a country which is dominated by lots of imbalances in the systems mainly due to the apartheid era which led to segregation of communities. Also poor urban planning within South African cities makes it difficult for people to access them. The increased use of private transport indicates the loopholes in the transport patterns which thus makes it difficult for sustainability to be achieved. This means that the needs of different individuals are not met.
A sustainable city is an elusive goal without a sustainable transport network. A sustainable urban transport system balances social, economic, and environmental goals through inclusive decision-making. Public acceptability of sustainable transport measures is a challenge for developing cities such as Tshwane, where mobility to all income groups of the society needs to be ensured without hampering environmental balance and road safety condition. Transport systems within cities must be one that allows the basic access needs of individuals and societies to be met safely in a manner that is consistent with human with equity within generations (Centre for sustainable development, 1998). That is transport must be affordable, it must operate efficiently, it should offer the choice of transport mode to meet individuals preferences and must also support a vibrant economy. This is not the case in South Africa; long commuting times in our cities as well as high transport fares are what characterizes our transport systems. This brings negative impacts to individuals, also places where people are supposed to catch their transports are very far, and most often they have to walk really long distances in order to get access to public transport. This study is important because thus far the government have been trying to implement sustainable transport systems in the cities but with little progress, and even though lots of researches indicate the closely linked relationship between transport patterns economic and social developments (McGray , 2004) South Africa still pays little attention in attaining this goal. Lucas (2011) mentions that the government needs to become more responsive in escalating mobility needs in urban communities. In order to achieve this, information on the reasons or factors as well as driving forces behind individual’s choices on the type of transport they use is required. It is therefore the purpose of this study to investigate the factors that influence transport mobility patterns in South African cities and it also seeks to find solutions to help escalate the stagnation implementation of sustainable transport.
Improving existing and developing new urban public transport systems has been widely seen as part of a global solution to the economic , social and environmental challenges faced by cities (Bunting,2004). The research aims to gives a voice to the lived experiences of affected groups and individuals with the aim of expressing their concerns about the transport system to planners, policy makers and other decision-makers. To maintain this role, the research has to be methodologically inclusive and transparent, but also has to retain a degree of objective fairness in the presentation of its results. The primary intention of this study is to help policy makers to recognise that the problem is multi-dimensional; it is relational; and it is also dynamic in nature. Thus the aim of this research paper is to investigate the hidden underlying factors which influence the use of transport by different economic and ethnic groups. , it is an empirical exploration of transport systems from an economic and social perspective as well as its effectiveness. This study aims therefore at understanding the driving forces behind the commuter’s choice and seeks to track the progress of South Africa as to how far they have progressed into becoming a sustainable country.
The objective of this study is to gather data that could be used by the government in making policies and regulations which will enforce the attaining of sustainable development most especially in cities and to make ‘urban areas more ecologically sustainable. The objective of this study where to identify:
If, and in what physical and social circumstances people on low incomes experience transport and accessibility problems on any kind of regular basis. The types of problems they experience and the underlying causes of such problems, e.g. lack of available transport, access onto the transport system, the cost of travel, lack of information, low travel horizons, the inappropriate location of activity opportunities such as employment, healthcare services, and schools relative to their homes. Whether different people are affected differently and when, where and how they are affected, and the longer-term consequences of such problems in terms of their wealth and financial security, physical and mental well-being, maintaining family ties and supporting social networks. What types of locally appropriate solutions could be developed to address these problems from the perspectives of the people who experience them. A set of messages that could be taken forward within transport and social welfare policy circles to secure active support for the furtherance of this agenda.
In 2007 and 2008, The South African Department of Transport (RSA DOT) became interested in the issue of transport and social exclusion following a detailed analysis of their 2003 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) (Republic of South Africa Department of Transport, 2005). This was the first survey which was taken with a representative sample of the whole of the South African population. It identified that the overwhelming majority of South African households do not have regular access to any form of motorised transport and that this seriously undermines their ability to participate in key economic and social activities. The South African governments have been largely unresponsive to the problem of transport poverty and up to this end it is still not included as a consideration within the South Africa’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (Grieco et al., 2009). In actual fact there has been a very poor post-apartheid government response to the escalating mobility needs of low income travellers, who constitute the vast majority of South Africa’s urban population (Potgieter et al., 2006). The NHTS demonstrates that the privately run and still largely unregulated kombi-taxis, remains the main form of motorised transport for two-thirds of all public transport users, compared to one in five who use buses and one in seven who use rail .
Little policy progress has been made despite significant and robust evidence of a strong relationship between lack of transport and economic and social disadvantage in the South African context (Lucas, 2011). Growing urban areas has been seen as a significant trend in the cities of Africa (Angel et al., 2011). Much urban expansion is taking place in peripheral areas which are characterized by inadequate transport infrastructure and services. Much expansion consists of low-density urban sprawl, which encourages high levels of daily mobility, long journeys and dependence on motorized transport (WB, 2002). This research paper explores mobility and accessibility in the city of Tshwane, the capital city of South Africa. In Tshwane rapid population growth has resulted in wide spread spatial expansion (Andresen, 2013). Urban extension has continued despite massive problems in the mobility system of the city, which is characterized by highly inadequate road networks, insufficient public transport and severe congestion problems (Melbye et al., 2015). Mobility is a basic need for most urban residents globally, because of the strong links between mobility and livelihood (Esson et al., 2016). As many urban settlements remain poorly serviced, urban residents often also need to travel relatively long distances to access urban facilities, services and markets (Lucas, 2011). Mobility is a resource that not everyone has equal access to. Transport mobility constraints reduce the number of accessible jobs, limit access to services, prevent the development of social networks and contribute to processes of social exclusion (Olvera et al., 2003). A number of studies highlight Transport mobility constraints related to poverty, documenting that a substantial share of urban residents is unable to afford motorized transportation on a regular basis (Olvera et al., 2013).
Some studies emphasize transport mobility constraints as related to characteristics of the individuals especially gender, but also age and disability (Levy, 2013). Accessibility is often highlighted as a crucial factor shaping and constraining mobility of residents in cities. Accessibility is in this context concerned with the opportunity or potential for mobility provided by the urban transport and land-use systems. As such accessibility is spatially bounded and exhibits strong spatial variations (Bryceson et al., 2003). Previous studies have shown that urban settlements are often characterized by very poor transport accessibility (Melbye et al., 2015), and that residents in cities often sometimes have to travel long distances (Venter et al., 2007). Individual mobility patterns have received a certain amount of attention in recent studies. However, it is not a straight forward task to obtain data which allows a large scale study, mostly due to privacy issues. An overview of the relevant literature identifies a wealth of studies which explore the interaction between transport provision and access to basic activities and amenities on the one hand, and the social consequences of this for low income populations.
Most authors also criticise the over emphasis of past policy on major transport infrastructure projects as a social development tool and seriously challenge their appropriateness and effectiveness in lifting low income population out of poverty (Bryceson et al., 2008). Mahapa (2001) note the preoccupation of transport policymakers with higher technology fixes and efficiency savings rather than the travel needs of local communities, which they claim could have resulted in different, less expensive and more context-specific and gender-sensitive solutions. The majority of these studies have tended towards a focus on the transport provision of low-income rural South Africans, where there is almost a complete absence of public transport services. They identify an over-reliance on walking to access all out of home activities, and how the inequalities which arise from this particularly affects women’s participation in the paid employment and the formal economy and can result in their low uptake of healthcare and educational opportunities. In a rare departure from these previous studies, this paper is concerned with the relationship between transport disadvantage and individual’s perceptions in the urban context. Salon and Guylani (2010) identify that existing research on transport for the urban poor in developing cities has tended towards four key themes:
• Financial poverty as the main cause of transport disadvantage
• The spatial mismatches between housing location and labour market opportunities;
• Road safety for pedestrians and other non-motorised road users
• Gender differences in transport provision and the related disproportionate negative social consequences of this for women and children.
Fouracre et al. (2006) have also argued that a more participatory approach to urban transport planning in developing countries would also lead to a better understanding of the effects and implications of travel on the livelihoods of the urban poor. This paper identifies similar recurring themes. Salon (2010) statistically demonstrate poverty to be strongly negatively correlated with the use of motorised transport and identify that affordability is a key issue in the transport poverty of urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, with the situation being particularly bad for slum women and their children. They find that most slum dwellers need to use motorised transport to access education and employment opportunities that could lift them out of poverty, both because of the distance of their housing locations from these key destinations and because of their inability to move physically closer to them due to the absence of affordable housing in the areas where such opportunities are located within the city. As research shows, the main problem of transport and access in the urban context is not the absence of transport infrastructure or motorised public transport per se, because of the almost ubiquitous presence of the privately owned and operated minibus-taxi industry, rather it is because the taxis are reported to be unaffordable, unsafe, unreliable and unsuitable for the long journeys that must often be undertaken to access work and other key destination (Lucas, 2011). This research paper aims to first explore our understandings of transport disadvantage within the South African context from an overview of the literature. It then moves on to identify why the implementation of sustainable transport patterns is difficult. This approach might provide a useful way to communicate the significance of transport poverty in the urban social development context to national and local policy makers.
Research design and methodology
Gauteng Map showing the City of Tshwane
Source adapted from Lucas, 2011
The city of Tshwane is located in the Gauteng Province in South Africa. It lies between the Bushveld and Highveld and it stretches across approximately 1,644 kilometres. Tshwane is one of the three capital cities in the country and it’s also the seat of government’s executive branch. The urban area of Tshwane has a population of about 2.125 million. The South African city of Tshwane is not just one of the country’s capitals, but also the centre of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. The city itself has over 700,000 inhabitants, while the much-larger urban area has a population of 2,125,000.
According to data from Statistics South Africa (2011), the primary ethnicity group residing at Tshwane was white, comprising 52.5% of the population. Black Africans accounted for 42% of the population, followed by Coloured at 2.5%, Indian or Asian at 1.9% and other at 1.2%.
The study will entirely employ a qualitative nature, which can be deemed appropriate due to both the exploratory nature of the enquiry and the type of in-depth and sensitive information that will be sought from the participants. The main data gathering effort will involve various individuals from different economic and social groups as well as ethnicity. The following groups of individuals will be targeted around Tshwane: people solely relying on public transport (like gautrain, taxis, buses) as well as people using private cars. The focus group will consist different individuals basically those using public transport, it will include people with permanent or temporary disabilities or conditions that make it difficult for them to independently travel to activity centres such as work, health care or shops; Students at tertiary institutions ;Low income workers earning less than R1000 per month, and also elderly people.
This study will recognise that the focus group approach has its critics mainly that the reported narratives only represent the views of the participants and cannot be taken to apply to the wider population. This is indeed true, but it should also be pointed out that it is rarely the intention of such research to be used in this way. Rather it aims to interactively explore the experiences of carefully selected participants who have already been identified as being appropriate for communicating important insights on a given topic, because of their own experiences or situation. The focus group exercise is intended to illicit new, shared understandings of these experiences between the group’s participants and its facilitator (who is or represents the researcher) in order to develop innovative conceptual approaches or new solutions to an identified problem or set of issues.
This research will be conducted by use of questionnaires. Data will be collected from various individuals using a structured self-completion questionnaire. The survey will be distributed randomly to people at various transport station like taxi rank, gautrain station, bus station and also individuals using private transports like private cars, motor bikes, cyclists and pedestrians. An informed consent form will be given together with the questionnaire. Participants will be guaranteed that their responses will remain anonymous. Participation will be voluntary and participants can opt out of the study at any stage. The questionnaire will include questions on modes of transport used for daily activities, preferred transport mode, transport costs incurred, travel time, reasons for the choice of mode, and the socio-economic profile of the respondents.
Research Analysis and Presentation
The findings of this research will emerge from detailed qualitative analysis of all focus groups. These groups have been analysed at several levels: in isolation from each other and in relation to each other within the group and across the different participant groups. This process of cutting and re-cutting the data is common practice in qualitative analyses and is used to draw out key themes, commonalities and differences in the data. However, it is only possible to offer a flavour of these findings and so what will be presented here is only a small part of the overall analysis that was undertaken for the study due to the word limitations of the paper.
Two main presentational methods are used to communicate our findings:
• A set of tables will be included to indicate in which group and at what stage of the discussions different transport issues emerged – the idea here is to denote as far as possible the relative importance of each issue for each group.
• A series of illustrative quotes are used within the text – the idea here is to ‘give a voice’ to the participants’ actual narratives of their transport experiences from those we manage to have some chat with
• Textual form will be used, composed of a summary of findings, direct quotations and implications of the study.
Constraints of the study
As the will use questionnaire’s as a qualitative approach of gathering the data which a very affordable method of doing research but it also acknowledges that many constraints may arise from which can make the data not to be a true reflection of the reality. The limitations of the study may include the following
Time is really a great factor in the research , to some stages the participants do have enough time to take the questionaries’ and also this research to be realistic it needs it may need maybe three months but this cannot be obtained.
Some budget will need to be put aside for the study, which is another constraint for the study. And with no funding for the study this may put a little pressure to the success of the study, roughly R7000 may be required to cover all the expenses that may be incurred during the data collection stage.
The study admits that not all respondents may be 100 percent truthful with their answers. This can happen for a variety of reasons, including social desirability bias and attempting to protect privacy.
Differences in understanding and interpretation
The trouble with not presenting questions to users face-to-face is that each may have different interpretations of your questions. Without someone to explain the questionnaire fully and ensure each individual has the same understanding, results can be subjective.
Hard to convey feelings and emotions
A survey or questionnaire cannot fully capture emotional responses or the feelings of the respondents. Without administering the questionnaire face-to-face, there is no way to observe facial expression, reactions or body language.
No matter what form of delivery is used, lack of accessibility is a threat. Surveys may be unsuitable for users with a visual or hearing impairment, or other impediments such as illiteracy.
1. Arnott, R., ; Small, K. (1994). The economics of traffic congestion. American Scientist, 82(No. 5), 446e455.
2. Bruntland, G. (1987). Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
3. Bryceson, D., Maunder, D., Mbara, T.C., Kibombo, R., Davies, A.S.C., Howe, J.D.G.F., (2003). Sustainable Livelihoods, Mobility and Access Needs’ TRL Report TRL544 for the United Kingdom Department for International Development. TRL Limited, Berkshire
4. Bunting, M. (2004). Making public transport work. McGill-Queen’s University Press.
5. Currie, G., ; De Gruyter, C. (2017). Exploring links between the sustainability performance of urban public transport and land use in international cities. In World society of transport and land use research conference. Brisbane Australia: WSTLUR
6. Esson, J., Gough, K.V., Simon, D., et al. (2016). Livelihoods in motion: linking transport, mobility and income-generating activities. J. Transp. Geogr. 54, 34–40. http://dx. doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.04.008.
7. Fouracre, P.R., Sohail, M., Cavill, S. (2006). A participatory approach to urban transport planning in developing countries. Transport Planning and Technology 29 (4), 313–330
8. Levy, C. (2013). Travel choice reframed: “deep distribution” and gender in urban transport. Environ. Urban. 25, 47–63. Available ONLINE : http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 0956247813477810.
9. Lucas, K. (2011). Transport and Social Exclusion: Where are We Now? In: Proceedings of the World Conference of Transport Research. Lisbon, Portugal (July 12th–17th)
10. Mahapa, S.M., Mashiri, M. ( 2001). Social exclusion and rural transport: gender aspects of a road improvement project in Tshitwe, Northern province. Development Southern Africa 18 (3), 365–376
11. Melbye, D.C., Møller-Jensen, L., Andreasen, M.H., et al. (2015). Accessibility, congestion and travel delays in Dar es Salaam – a time–distance perspective. Habitat Int. 46, 178–186. Availabe ONLINE :http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.12.004
12. Olvera, L.D., Plat, D., Pochet, P. (2013). The puzzle of mobility and access to the city in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Transp. Geogr. 32, 56–64 Available ONLINE: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. jtrangeo.2013.08.009
13. Potgieter, C.A., Pillay, R., Rama, S. (2006). Women, Development and Transport in Rural Eastern Cape. Human Science Research Council Press, South Africa Cape Town. . Preston,
14. Salon, D., Gulyani, S. (2010). Mobility, poverty and gender: travel ‘choices’ of slum residents in Nairobi, Kenya. Transport Reviews 30 (5), 641–657
15. Venter, C. (2011). Transport expenditure and affordability: the cost of being mobile. Dev. South. Afr. 28, 121–140. Available ONLINE: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0376835x.2011.545174.
16. WB, (2002). Cities on the Move: A World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review. World Bank, Washington DC.