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The principle of moving and handling is to ensure that the item is stable and not heavy to move. Aids should be used to handle all heavy or awkward items, cleared all the items and material that can obstructed the routes, arranged the area where the item should be placed, stand next to the item as closed as possible with the feet spread to shoulder width, bent the knees and stay back in normal posture.
Tight grip of the item using legs to lift the load in as smooth a motion as possible,
Reducing the risk of hazardous manual handling for all employees is more important, It is to ensure that correct posture is maintained and lifting techniques; working within a team; using mechanical aids like hoisting, transferring somebody with a pat slide boards, following appropriate systems and agreed ways of working, reporting any hazards.

6 Know how to handle hazardous substances and materials.

6.1 Identify hazardous substances and materials that may be found in the work setting
Hazardous substances that may be found in the work setting could be medicines or drugs, cleaner’s products, and cosmetic for patients, clinical and bodily waste. It can cause burns or poisoning.
Other hazard might be microorganisms, viruses, parasites and bacteria found inside the food. More again, we also have other hazard associated with food which is naturally-occurring, intentionally-added, unintentional and incidental chemical additives.
More again, other hazard like broken teeth, cut mouths and choking can be harmful and cause illness. There are also conditions and contaminants like insects, spoilage, hair and dirt.
6.2 Describe safe practices for storing, using and disposing of hazardous substances

All the cleaning products and disinfectants need to be stored in the original containers as this give people the opportunities to follow the instructions and the correct usage. It is good to use the products in their original containers for health and safety.
Biological waste needs to be put in orange or yellow bags and disposed of separately from household waste. Body fluids like blood, urine, vomit and faeces must be cleaned up immediately. Disposable materials used for bodily fluids must be put inside the clinical waste, more again used dressings and contaminated gloves and aprons should be put in the clinical waste.
Be sure you know how to use the hazardous substances and use protective clothing provided. Every care setting has a COSHH protection file that explains how to dispose hazardous substances and materials. Used needles should be placed in a yellow sharps box, clinical waste disposed of in the yellow bags, used and out of date medication collected by the pharmacist.

7. Understand how to promote fire safety in the work setting
7.1 Describe safe practice for that prevent fires from starting and spreading
Preventing and identifying the potential fire in the health and social workplace is to understand the way fire start and spread, explain in the triangle of ignition, fuel and oxygen. It’s good to prevent fires from starting for example the danger when there is lit of cigarettes, naked flames, hot surfaces, faulty electrical equipment. The importance of regular checks on electrical equipment is required for example PAT testing, the importance of staff training and vigilance in the workplace, risk assessment regularly, fires from starting and spreading.

7.2 Outline emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting
Any staff in the work setting need to know how to:
? Raise alarm by breaking the glass of the nearest fire alarm which automatically alerts the fire brigade.
? Contact the Switchboard by dialling 46666 and indicate the exact location.
? Close all doors and windows when possible.
? Tackle the fire when it is safe to do so only after the alarm have been sounded and all persons are safe.
But in case of continuous sounding of fire alarm in my ward, identify the problem and evacuate when possible and all other staff should leave by the nearest exit and proceed to the fire assembly point. But the alarm sound intermittent, staffs need to refer to the fire panel to identify the location and give assistance when possible. Finally the rest of the staff needs to remain in place until the sound is continuous. It is prohibited to use the lift in case of fire until it is told to do so.

8. Be able to implement security measures in the work setting
1. procedures for checking identity:
• requesting access card to work setting premises like ID, signing procedures,
• allocating visitors badges, the use of biometric security systems such as fingerprint scanners,
• Requesting access to information in the work place with secure password systems for electronic information.
2.
• protect own security and the security of others in the workplace for example knowledge of security systems alarms, CCTV, gaining access to building,
• understand special procedures for shift or night time working,
• importance and procedures for lone working and ensuring that others are aware of own whereabouts for example signing in and out,
• Use of specials codes or mobiles phones, importance of staff training on security and vigilance in the workplace.

9.1 Identify common signs and indicators of stress
Common signs and symptoms of stress are inability of short temper, falling overwhelmed, sense of loneliness, isolation, agitation, moodiness, irritability and depression. The cognitive signs and symptoms might be memory problems, inability to concentrate, poor judgement, constant worrying. Behavioural signs and symptoms can be eating disorder, sleeping disorder, neglecting responsibilities, using alcohol cigarettes or drugs to relax and nervous habits such as nail-biting.
9.2 Identify circumstances that tend to trigger own stress
Factors that stress people at work can be changes in routine, dealing with difficult situations, pressure to meet targets, interpersonal relationships with individuals and others expectation from managers demand of working unsocial hours. Other factors can be special projects, personal factors like financial problems, relationship or family problems, major life changes, bereavement, injury and illness.
9.3 Describe ways to manage own stress
We are using our own copying strategies to manage our stress such as relaxation techniques for example massage, yoga aromatherapy, listening to music; physical activity and exercise like going for a run, or for a gym. We also have the social strategies like meeting up with friends and family, volunteering or helping with community work. More again, social strategies like making lists, prioritising, music, painting or other artistic pursuits are other way of managing stress. We have again faith strategies like religion and others beliefs. Emotional wellbeing, resilience, taking time out is important as well to understand and manage individual stress.

Unit 7 The Principles of infection prevention and control Performance Criteria

1.Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infection
As employees, our responsibility is to take precautionary measures to stop and control the spread of infection in the workplace. This requires working safely to protect myself, other staff, visitors and individuals from infections. It is important as employees to know the legislation that protect employees so that we can work safely. In my ward, there are information provided in the health and safety file and COSHH file. More again as employees, we need to attend all trainings provided by our employers regarding the infection control and prevention. If an employee comes across a hazard such as bodily fluids, spillage in the work place, or a staff member not wearing gloves we have to report immediately to a senior staff member to avoid a spread of infection in the work place.
In the workplace employees need to put the policies and procedures into practice, for example when performing hand washing, staying home when feeling ill to prevent the spread of infection, not wearing jewellery as it catch up infection when cooking or supporting service users, always wearing proper protective equipment to reduce the spread of infection in the work place. It is also important that all equipment is cleaned correctly to avoid cross infection this is because equipment and other materiel carry infection.
It is employees’ responsibility to use the PPE provided by the employer, to attend training, follow organisational infection control policies and procedures. In terms of PPE I use different colour aprons for different procedures and when I put gloves on I check that they are not worn nor have holes in and ensure they fit properly to ensure they do not come off and therefore no longer act as a protective infection control barrier. To take my gloves off after use, pull them off from the cuff to turn the glove inside out and pull off the second glove while still holding the first so that both can be folded together inside out, so in this way we avoid the spread of germs by touching the used side with bare hands. After using PPE, they are disposed of in the clinical bin which is a yellow bag.
In my workplace, employers should provide to all staff all the necessary training to control and supervise the procedures in the ward so that infection control guidelines is followed effectively. Employers have to make a work place a warm and safe place to work for staff, individuals and visitors. Risk assessments is performed to prevent dangers for some activities and to reduce the risk in the work place. Employers must provide PPE free of charge and provide training and refresher updates on infection control.
2. Understanding legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infection.
2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
Laws and legal regulations about infection prevention come under the Health and Safety at Work Act; this act is about ensuring a safe work place for employers, employees and members of the public by minimising accidents at work.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations introduced the need for monitoring health and safety and risk assessment; including infection prevention and control.
The Food Safety Act was created to ensure safe practices for food, to avoid contamination and spreading of infection and includes handling, storing and disposal of food.
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH); come under HASAWA regulations. This is relevant as it is about the prevention and control of pathogens and managing the safe storage and use of hazardous substances.
Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) is relevant as it requires that any infection or disease that is work related be recorded and reported.
We have the Regulatory bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) that produce standards to guide and inform infection prevention and control practices. The HSE is an independent regulator for work-related health, safety and illness; provide information and advice to reduce risks of accidents occurring in the workplace including the spread of infections. NICE is responsible for providing guidance on the most effective ways to prevent, diagnose and treat disease and ill health. The FSA is responsible for food safety and food hygiene and providing advice on food safety issues.
2.2. Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
Local authorities protect their local communities by providing policies and procedures about infection control that have been developed. I live in an area that has an Environmental Health Policy that safeguards the community’s right to having clean air, safe and clean water, ensuring all sewerage is managed safely, rubbish and waste disposed of, cleaning and maintenance of areas open to the public. Infection prevention and control teams carry out routine inspections too to different settings to ensure safety.
My own ward has policies and procedures on when and how to use protective equipment, cleaning routines to follow, how to maintain clean environments. This is in relation to different areas and activities such as in bathrooms and toilets where body fluids are present, handling laundry that may be contaminated with body fluids, disposing of hazardous waste, preparing, handling, cooking, serving and clearing food. PPE is essential when working with hazardous activities.
There are many systems and procedures that provide ways of preventing and controlling the spread of infection. Staff members need to be aware of the necessary training and regular information about infection prevention control. There is also information provided through the internet, media and different campaigns are organised to raise alarm amongst the general public about infection prevention and control. An example like swine flu, MRSA bug and other superbugs are raised to prevent the spread of infection.
In terms of food hygiene, personal hygiene must be observed through effective hand washing, tying hair back, not wearing jewellery and wearing PPE. All kitchen utensils need to be kept clean as do work surfaces. Food needs to be stored correctly, on different shelves in the fridge and different utensils used for different food types and cooked and raw foods. All guidelines must also be followed when cooking food thoroughly, ensuring that food is defrosted correctly, washing hands before serving and eating food.
3.Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections
3.1 Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection
Every local authority has infection control policies and procedures that have been developed to protect their local communities. The Trust I work in has an Environmental Health Policy that protect the community’s right to get clean air, safe and clean water, ensuring all sewerage is controlled safely, rubbish and waste disposed of, cleaning and maintenance of areas open to the public. Infection prevention and control teams carry out routine inspections too to different settings to ensure safety. My organisation has policies and procedures on when and how to use protective equipment, cleaning routines to follow, how to maintain clean environments. This is in relation to different areas and activities such as in bathrooms and toilets where body fluids are present, handling laundry that may be contaminated with body fluids, disposing of hazardous waste, preparing, handling, cooking, serving and clearing food. PPE is essential when working with hazardous activities.
Employers have the duty to provide systems and procedures for preventing and controlling infection in terms of monitoring any infection outbreaks, providing immunisation programmes and using barrier nursing in care settings to contain and prevent the spread of infection, strict procedures must be followed when providing care to an individual being barrier nursed such as careful removal and disposal of PPE, through hand washing procedures and equipment.
3.2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation
The outbreak of infection can be fatal if care is not taken. The impact of having MRSA can be fatal because it resists too many antibiotics. The outbreak of an infection has consequences for individuals, staff and the organisation. It can cause illness to everybody and it can also impact emotionally because people that acquire infection relate it to being dirty and some infections may require people to be isolated from others for a period of time. The organisation could lose money if most of the staff gets off sick and as they will then need to employ more staff which they will be paying to cover in addition to staffs that are off sick. The organisation could also be fined by not complying with the law and in turn this will damage their reputation.
4. Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections.
4.1 Define the term of risk
The term risk means the likelihood of a hazard or an activity causing harm.
In the workplace when giving personal care, we always come into contact with bodily fluid which contains pathogens. Bathrooms and toilets always have dirt and where bodily fluids are present and definitely have pathogens. Handling laundry that may be dirty or contaminated with bodily fluids can also contain pathogens. Handling of disposing of clinical waste, emptying waste containers and receptacles will also bring you into waste that is contaminated with pathogens. Providing personal care activities that require being close to an individual and dealing with bodily fluids increases the chance of infections spreading.
Sometimes support workers may be exposed to high risk situations where the risk of infection spreading is higher such as in an individual’s home where the support worker is supporting with personal care but then also other activities such as handling food and disposing of waste.
4.2 Outline potential risks of infection within the work place
Risk assessment helps makes us aware of the danger we are facing when doing different activities and demonstrate how to avoid the risk. It also helps to protect the organisation’s reputation because the risk assessment identifies the risks in the workplace and the measures put in place to control or eradicate such risks. In general, risk assessments are important as they reduce the risks of accidents and ill health to everyone.
4.3 There are five main stages to carrying out a risk assessment:
1) Identify the hazard: this means finding out what the hazards are and what might cause harm by observing but also by speaking with individuals, staff and visitors.
2) Evaluate the risks: this stage involves deciding who might be harmed and how and involves considering everyone in the workplace such as individuals, staff and visitors.
3) Take precautions: It is to identify the level of danger. This involves deciding on what precautions must be taken, reduce or avoid the hazards for example wearing the appropriate PPE might be a precaution.
4) Review the risks: the effectiveness of the precautions in place should be checked regularly to ensure that they are sufficient.
5) Report and record outcome: the findings of the risk assessment must be recorded and all those involved and who need to know should be given explanations and information on how these risks can be prevented and/or controlled.
5. Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections.
5.2 Describe different types of PPE
The different types of PPE are: aprons and gloves are commonly used types of PPE. Disposable gloves have being given different name such as standard latex. We have the white and blue aprons are standard latex used for personal care, nitrile is used for cleaning and vinyl is blue gloves and green aprons used when handling food. Disposable aprons are placed over uniforms to prevent the uniform from becoming soiled when carrying out different activities. For example white apron for personal care and green for handling food.

When using the apron you must first wash and dry your hands and then, the neck strap must be placed over the head and the waist ties fastened behind the back. To remove the apron it is important to limit the areas your hand will touch in order to reduce the possibility of cross infection. You should pull at the neck strap and the waist strap, assure that it does not fall to the floor, then rolled it up like a ball in your gloved hand and then dispose of it in the yellow bin bag. When removing PPE avoid touching any surface, remove the item before moving to the next patient, place the item in the correct bin and wash and dry your hands afterwards in case of cross contamination. Clinical waste like gloves and aprons are regarded as high risk and must be disposed of properly to reduce the risk of cross infection. Infectious and hazardous materials should be placed in yellow bags for incineration; black bags are for food waste and other waste.

5.3 Explain the reasons for use type of PPE
Uniforms are other PPE used in care settings where the policy require the regular cleaning and must not be worn outside the company, and hats is worn when food is being prepared and served. PPE are materials that stop the risk of pathogens being transferred from the support worker to the individual, from one individual to another, from one staff member to another. PPE is a physical barrier for infections and it protects staff from infection when giving personal care to individuals.

5.4 State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE
The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations set out how PPE should be used in the workplace and the responsibilities of both employees and employers’. These regulations come under the Health and Safety at Work Act in terms of protection and prevention.
5.5 Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE
Employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE include providing the correct PPE in relation to the specific tasks that are carried out and for staff members and this must be provided free of charge.
5.6 Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE
Employers need to have arrangements in place to make sure PPE is stored correctly and is available when needed. It is the duty of the employer to assess the need of PPE in the work environment. The employer must also train staff and provide them with information and guidance on how to use PPE. Employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE include attend training about PPE and use PPE correctly and when it is necessary to do so. Employees need to attend training to know about how to put on, use and dispose of PPE safely. Employees must report immediately and not use any PPE that is torn or has a defect.
6. Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections
Some of the principles of good personal hygiene include washing hands before and after tasks and bathing regularly to prevent the spread of infection and body odour, keeping hair clean and tied back, wearing clean clothing and ensuring uniforms worn are washed regularly and only worn in the workplace to avoid the spread of infection, keeping nails trimmed and clean, not wearing jewellery at work as this can be a way of transporting pathogens.
The stages for hand washing are as follows:
• make sure that you remove any jewellery,
• turn the water tap on and make sure that you can place both hands under the water comfortably and that it is at the right temperature so that you can wash your hands
• wet both hands
• apply soap and lather both hands palm to palm
• rub each hand over the back of the other,
• interlock fingers and rub fingers
• rub thumbs
• rub palms together
• rinse to remove the soap residue
• Dry your hands with either a paper towel or an air drier.
Hand washing should be performed regularly to help prevent and control the spread of infection and should be washed before starting work and putting on a clean uniform, before and after using PPE, before and after specific tasks such as after using the toilet, before and after handling and serving food, after handling waste, before and after carrying out activities with individuals.
There are different types of products that should be used for hand washing and these include soap, antiseptic or sanitizer gels and alcohol-based hand rubs. Liquid soap from a dispenser should be used for hand washing in communal areas as these will have less pathogen then if bars of soap are shared between different people. Antiseptic gels have chemicals that destroy pathogens and these are used where there is a higher risk of infection. Alcohol-based hand rubs should be used in addition to and not instead of hand washing with soaps and antiseptic gels and add an additional protective barrier against pathogens.
It is important to take care of our skin as it protects from pathogens; if the skin is not looked after it could become dry and develop cracks which in turn could become the route of pathogens. It is therefore important that hand cream is applied to help keep skin moisturised so that it does not become dry.

P50117658.08 Unit 8 Causes and spread of infection
1. Understand the causes of infection
There are 4 types of pathogens:
Bacteria are a single celled organism that multiplies by themselves. They live within and on most living and non-living things. The majority of bacteria are harmless and beneficial to the human body but some can cause infectious diseases.
Viruses are made up of genes and proteins that spread throughout the body by invading the body’s own cells so they can reproduce and multiply in the body. They use the body’s cells as a host because they are unable to multiply on their own. They are normally spread directly from human to human.
Fungi like to grow in warm, moist places. Some fungi can be beneficial to us such as penicillin, but certain types of fungi can be harmful to our health. Like bacteria and viruses, some fungi can act as pathogens. Human fungal diseases can occur due to infection or fungal toxins. Symptoms can be as common as itching, coughing, fever, wheezing, but they can also be as serious as meningitis or even death.

Parasites are organisms that need other organism for their survival. They draw nourishment and other needs from their host organism. Parasites that cause infection and disease are known as Pathogenic parasites.

Parasites are those micro-organisms which depend on other organisms for their survival. Both virus and bacteria could be parasites.

1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Illnesses or infections caused by :

Bacteria could be bronchitis, ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, syphilis, Chlamydia, Salmonella tuberculosis, MRSA, coccidiosis, food poisoning, dysentery,
Viruses could be Influenza, common cold, stomach flu, pneumonia, HIV or AIDS, herpes, warts, encephalitis

Fungi could be valley fever, athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infection

Parasites could be worms, schistosomiasis, malaria, lice, and sleeping sickness like trypanosomiasis.

1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’?

Colonisation occurs where bacteria want to establish in an area.
Infection is a type of germs that are living in the body and make you sick with sign and symptoms.

1.4 Explain what is meant by systemic infection and localised infection?

Systemic means it is in the blood stream and is spreading through the body. Septicaemia is an example of a systemic infection.

Localised means the infection is restricted to one area only. An infected cut or ulcer is an example of localised infection.
A localised infection can spread and become systemic.

1.5 Identify poor practice that may lead to the spread of infection
Poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection are, poor hand hygiene when in contact with patients, inappropriate use of PPE, coughing and sneezing without covering the mouth protection, inadequate cleaning and storage of linen and equipment, poor waste disposal like used plasters, dressings.

2.Understand the transmission of infection
2.1 Conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms are:
Moisture is caused by humidity which carries foods in solution into the cell, carry wastes in solution away from the cell.
Nutrients: when lack of food hinders bacterial growth which is favoured by a sufficient quantity of the proper kind of food.
Warmth or Temperature helps the growth rate of microorganisms which is subjected to adverse temperatures are not able to multiply.
Time is a rapid process which allow microorganism to reproduce.
2.2 Explain the way an infective agent might enter the body
An infective agent might enter the body through inhalation, breathing in droplets from coughs, sneezes and cold. These are called Routes of infection, and include: Inhalation (breathing in droplets from coughs or sneezes into the lungs causing coughs, cold, influenza. We also have ingestion. Most people have experienced a pain stomach, which reveals itself in the form of diarrhoea and or vomiting; Injection via needle stick injury, insect bites or where tubes are inserted such as catheters or wound drains. Up the urinary and reproductive systems (the infectious agent may remain localized or may enter the blood stream leading to sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, AIDS virus.
2.3 Identify commons sources of infection
Common sources of infection are the following: People, contaminated laundry, contaminated food, clinical waste, contaminated equipment, dust. Poor hand hygiene before food or after giving personal care, faecal, oral, not changing clothes and uniform, sexually transmitted, animals, poor hygiene in the work setting on the equipment, inappropriate use of PPE.
2.4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person
Infective agents can be transmitted to a person via: hands, equipment, and environment.
2.5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur
The key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur are the following: kitchen waste, storage of linen, mixing raw foo and cooked food, infected dressings, leaving food uncovered, not washing linen on the normal temperature, and inappropriate use of PPE.

P50117658.09 – 9 – implement person centred approaches in health and social care Performance Criteria (PC)
1 Understand Person centre approaches for care and support
1.1 Definition of person centred
A person centred is an individual or a patient we put in the centre of decision making and support, somebody we value, and respect and treat with dignity.
1.2 Explain why is important to work in a way that embeds person centred values
It is important to work that embeds person centred values because we always need their consent to make any decisions and they always come first in all aspect of support and care in the health environment.
1.3 Explain why risk taking can be part of a person centred approach
Risk can be part of the person centred approach because the risk involves their choices regarding their proper life and their interaction in the community.
1.4 Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way.
Using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way as this individual is put at the centre of decision which means that we always value his opinion and involves him in any action which is important. Again he cannot be compare to another patient or individual because individuals are always different.
2 Be able to work in a person centred way
2.1 Find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual
It is important to know the history of the individual by talking to them and retrieve all the information relating to his concerns like what he wants and what he doesn’t work. We also need to look inside his care plan for more details to find out how to fulfil his needs in term of care and support.
2.2 Apply person centred values in day-to-day work taking into account the history, preferences, wishes, and needs of the individual
In the ward there was a patient with head injuries problem and also experiencing language barrier as he was speaking Spanish. During his admission, he always declined the breakfast, lunch or dinner meal as he had no one to help with the language. After every meal service, he introduces himself into it the kitchen and gets any possible food to eat as he is unable to fill in the menu. Whenever the food is for other patients he doesn’t care about. He gets it and eats without any permission. When he gets discovered he is being told not enters the kitchen but this was explained to him by family member who translated to him. To be continued

3 Be able to establish consent when providing care and support
3.1Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care and support
The importance of establishing consent when providing care and support is to value the individual and make him feel important regarding the decision making. When providing care, the individual opinion and consent are proof of not being ignored and left behind.
3.2 Establish consent for an activity or action
When the observation time for patients start, to approach them, I always ask their opinion and get the agreement before performing the observation, but it comes that patients refused or declined it, I have to respect their view and stop. Then I document it and report it to the nurse in charge.
3.3 Establish what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established
If the consent cannot be established with the consent of individual, I would refer to the supervisor, the manager, doctor and other professionals related to his care for a formal consent which is required to be recorded, documented and signed.
4 Be able to encourage active participation
4.1 describe how active participation benefits an individual
Active participation benefits an individual because he feels to be in the centre of decision, carers always ask for his consent and he feels well value and respected as an individual.
4.2 Identify possible barriers to participation
The different barriers to participation could be the disabilities of an individual for example somebody with the language barrier can be thought to get consent from them. We also have emotional barriers and attitude which can stop patient participation, even the support worker lack of training in active participation and routines can be the barriers for participation.
5 Be able to support the individual’s right to make choice
5.1Support an individual to make informed choices
5.2
5.3 Explain why a worker’s personal views should not influence an individual’s choice
A carer personal view’s is only superficial regarding the individual’s choice because individual always come first and his opinion count to any decision making. That is why carer view is placed is second before individual.
5.4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others.
When it comes that the decisions were made by other, the carer has the responsibility to explain it in detail to the individual to let him understand the close of the decisions. But if it arise that the individual is satisfied with the decisions, he have the right to challenge people who have made the decisions on his behalf. Again if he still not satisfies with the decisions, he has a choice to contact doctors and social worker for more explanation.
6 Be able to promote individual’s well-being
6.1 Explain how individual identify and self-esteem are linked with well-being
An individual identify and self-esteem are linked with well-being as when an individual is treated with respect and being valued as an individual, he feel important and know that he is treated in the positive manner that make them feel good. The fact that his right is not underestimating, his well-being is perfect as well.
6.2 Describe attitude and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well-being
Carers who approach an individual with a good professional manner make an individual feel good and being surrounded by a good team. The good team empowers individual with different approaches and contribute to their well-being.
P50117658.10
Unit 10. Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care
1.Know how to recognise signs of abuse
1) Physical abuse is a physical force that may result in bodily injury, pain, or impairment. Both old and young people can be physically abused. There are signs or indicators to show physical abuse and there are ways in which victims and abusers act or interact with each other.
Physical abuse includes the smashing of furniture and personal belongings, being pushed or shoved, being held against your will, slapped, bitten, kicked, pinched, punched, choked or ducked under water, threatened or hurt with a weapon, threats of violence, locked in or out of the house, hair pulled, burnt with cigarettes, acid, an iron, hot food or water.
Signs of physical abuse in adults are: bruising, particularly in well-protected and covered areas, fractures, sprains or dislocations, lacerations, burns – including friction burns and scalds, drowsiness, pressure sores, cowering and flinching, unexplained hair loss, significant weight loss.
Symptoms include feeling low, angry and in pain.
2) Sexual abuse is when a person is forced or tricked into taking part in any kind of sexual activity. When sexual contact is non-consensual, it is an abuse. It can happen to men and women of any age that is both old and young. It can include sexual penetration of any part of the body with a penis, finger or any object, sexual exploitation, making threats about sexual activities, exposure to pornographic material, touching of breast or genitals, kissing.
Activities such as showing pornographic material, forcing the person to watch sex acts or forcing the person to undress are also considered sexual abuse.
The signs and symptoms of sexual abuse in the elderly can be bruises around breasts or genitals, genital infections, unexplained vaginal or anal bleeding, torn, stained, or bloody underwear, disturbed sleep patterns, vulnerable adult appears withdrawn and fearful, inappropriate dressing.
3) Emotional Abuse is where one person gains power and control over another through words and gestures which gradually undermine the other’s self-respect. Emotional abuse can be name-calling, blaming, screaming, making threats, yelling, neglecting, manipulation, not listening, withholding affection, belittling and untrue accusations.
Signs of emotional abuse are depression, anxiety, withdrawing or refusing affection, fearful or agitation, lower self-esteem and self-confidence, shouting or swearing, behaviours such as rocking, hair twisting and self-mutilation, vulnerable adult withdrawn and fearful.
4) Financial abuse is stealing or defrauding someone of money, goods and/or property, allowing others to steal money or property, tricking or threatening individuals into giving away money or property, withholding money, refusing to allow individuals to manage their finances. For example when a support worker is taking money from a service users’ purse without his or her knowledge.
Signs of financial abuse are faked signatures on cheques which is not legal to the service user, unexplained withdraw as of the large amount of money that do not resemble the service users’ signature, or signed when the service user cannot write, unexplained withdrawals of large sums of money by a person accompanying the service user, lack of amenities, such as TV, personal grooming items, appropriate clothing, that the service user should be able to afford, deliberate isolation of service user from friends and family, resulting in the support worker alone having total control, the unexplained sudden transfer of assets to a family member or someone outside the family. Symptoms include the person feeling fearful, anxious, embarrassed and belittled.
5) Institutional abuse happens when the lifestyles of service users are sacrificed in favour of the routines and/or restrictive practices of the home. Institutional abuse comprises neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, discriminatory abuse, psychological and emotional abuse, financial abuse, service users not being allowed to go out, their personal letters are opened and read, their privacy not respected, their interest not at the centre of every decision being made, excessive medication and complaints procedure not made available for the service users.
Signs and symptoms include lack of own personal clothing and possessions, no flexibility of bedtimes, eating times or waking times, dirty clothing or bed linen, misuse of medication, lack of care plans, lack of heating, staff entering into service users’ rooms without knocking.
6) Self-neglect is when a person does not pay attention to their health and well-being. Service users can neglect themselves due to illness or depression or might intentionally neglect themselves.
The signs and symptoms include: living in dirty conditions, poor personal hygiene, poor nutrition, not getting medical help, not being interested in the way they look, long toe nails not taking medication.
7) Neglect is when a carer does not carry out their duty of care and fails to care for a service user this can be deliberate or unintentional due to the carer being ill or stressed.
Signs and symptoms of neglect include absence of food, water, and heat, poor personal hygiene including soiled clothing, dirty nails and skin, inappropriately dressed for cold or hot weather, bedsores, constant hunger, withdrawn, illness.
1.3 describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse
Living with the carer may increase the chances for abuse to occur as this may cause stress and resentment if the carer feels they cannot cope. If an individual is looked after staff that do not have the right training, any supervision at work or support, are stressed, have personal problems or do not like working in care then this can increase the risk of an individual being abused. If an individual is not mobile, is confused, has dementia, or is aggressive or challenging then this can increase the risk of abuse as the carer might not know how to deal with this, get frustrated and might take it personally and abuse the individual. Domestic violence can also play a part as can the relationship between the individual and their parent or spouse if it was poor and involved abuse.

2. Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse
2.1 Explain the action to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused
If I suspect abuse through noticing a sign of physical abuse or change in the behaviour of an individual, I will make sure that I ask the individual what has happened telling the individual the changes that I have noticed. If it is in my place of work and the name of the person that abused the individual is known, whether staff or another service user, I must also record and report this.
I will listen to the individual carefully; it is up to them to tell me, I would not ask them any questions about this as this is not part of my job role and would stay calm.
I will make sure that I record what the individual tells me using the individual’s own words. I will make sure that I reassure the individual and explain that their safety is the most important and that it is my duty of care to tell the manager.
I will make sure that I let my manager know what has happened immediately and pass this information on in private and make sure my report is also confidential. I will only report and record the facts – what the individual has told me. Depending on what is found out the individual might need to continue to be monitored and a plan of care will be put in place that must be followed to protect the service user.
I will make sure that I let my manager know and report and record this in private but if the allegation is about my manager or the manager is unwilling to do anything, I will follow my company policy of reporting abuse and report to CQC.
2.2 Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused
If an individual alleges that they are being abused, I listen to the individual carefully and investigate to know exactly what happened. If it happened in my place of work and the abuser is known, whether staff or another service user, I must also record and report this.
I will make sure that I record the detail of all allegations that the individual tells me using the individual’s own words, I will not ask any questions or make any judgements about what I have been told and I will stay calm.
I will make sure that I record the date and time when the abuse was reported and then sign this record. I will make sure that I take the allegations seriously and reassure the individual that they are right to tell me as their safety is the most important.
I will make sure that I let my manager know and report and record this in private but if the allegation is about my manager or the manager is unwilling to do anything, I will follow my company policy of reporting abuse and report to CQC.

2.3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved
Ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved are as follows:
By leaving things as they are and not touching anything.
By not removing, cleaning or washing what the individual is wearing and by not handling the individual’s clothes or bedding.
By keeping the area safe and not allowing anyone to enter into the area.
By recording and reporting carefully, confidentially and in full all that was told to me by both the individual and others if present at the time and also what I noticed; stating the facts only.
By preserving any first aid items used.
3. Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse.
Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, the Vetting and Barring Scheme run by the Independent Safeguarding Authority, Criminal Records Bureau, and Human Rights Act 1998 are meant to be the national policies.
Local Systems has Safeguarding Adults Boards, Safeguarding policies and procedures for vulnerable adults.
Safeguarding Adults Boards bring together a number of different local agencies that work with vulnerable adults to share information and monitor their work. For example local agencies like the police, MIND, housing teams, advocacy groups.
The Police: their role is to safeguard vulnerable adults, investigate all reports of vulnerable adult abuse and protect and uphold the rights of vulnerable adults.
CQC is a company required to monitor and provide guidance on what all health and social care providers must do to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse; the safeguarding policies, procedures and systems developed are in place to prevent vulnerable adults from being abused.

3.3 Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse
A report from Castle beck Care Ltd which demonstrated how healthcare failed to comply with the rule and regulation to ensure that the vulnerable living at Winterbourne View were protected from risk from unsafe practice. Individuals in Winterbourne View were pinned down, slapped, doused in cold water and are taunted and teased by staff in the home.
Castle beck Care Ltd failed to notify the Care Quality Commission of these incidents, injuries that happened to individuals and occasionally when individuals had gone missing.
An article about the murder of Steven Hoskin, a young man with learning difficulties who was abused and murdered in July 2006. In addition to being pushed over the railway and falling from a great height, it was also found that Steven had taken paracetamol tablets, had been drinking alcohol and had sustained recent injuries from cigarette burns. In addition he suffered appalling treatment from his abusers who took over his bed sit and he had neck bruises from having been hauled around his home by his own pet’s dog-lead and the backs of his hands had the marks of foot-prints.

3.4 Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals for abuse
It could be Local authority Adult Services Department like Social Services,
My manager, colleagues
My company’s policies and procedures on safeguarding
The internet
Care Quality Commission
Independent Safeguarding Authority
Books
Training and advice from training centres.
4. Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse
4.1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
Working person-centred values include the individuality of the person, the rights of the individual like choice, privacy, independence, dignity and being respected. If person centred values are taken into consideration when supporting an individual the abuse is reduced. If an individual is considered to have a say in what he wants and is at the centre of any decision, it will be more unlikely that there is abuse. The individual will know what suits him and will not get so frustrated. I always put the service users I work with, their families and friends at the centre of planning about their needs. Individuals decide what to do, where to go, what clothes to wear and are treated with dignity, respect, confidentiality and are able to make their own choices.
Active participation is a way of working that recognises an individual’s right to be engaged in the different activities around them and their everyday life and let them feel independent as possible. The individual is treated as an active partner in their own care or support, rather than a passive recipient. So if the individual responds actively in their daily activities, which is what I practice, then the risk of abuse is low. For example in choosing the type of meal to eat me support individuals to make the lists of their own choice of what they want.
Individuals are supported to make their choices in anything they want like in choosing food or drink, in what to wear, whether to use hot or cold water to bathe. No individual will choose what will hurt him or her therefore abuse is reduced to the minimum. Individuals’ rights are promoted throughout the service. My service user has the right to do anything that they wish to do and if it is what they want as long as it is not dangerous, a risk assessment is then done to stop any abuse happening. I ensure that I promote service users’ rights and choices by allowing them to make their own choices and support them to have the rights of anyone else.
4.2 Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse
The complaints procedure gives the complainant the right to be heard and supported to make their views known. An accessible complaints procedure is understandable and easy to use. It sets out clearly how to make a complaint, the steps that will be taken when the complaint is looked into. It also provides flexibility in relation to target response times. An accessible complaints procedure resolves complaints more quickly as the complainant feels that they are being listened to and their complaint taken seriously. These sets up an open culture of making sure that abuse will not be tolerated in any form and encourages the complainant to not accept this. I remember when Mr R felt very happy when his complaint of being denied sleep was recorded in the complaints procedure. I supported him to write down the complaint and this was taken seriously.

5. Know to recognise and report unsafe practices
5.1 describe unsafe practices that may affect the wellbeing of individuals
Unsafe sanitary conditions can spread infection as cross-contamination can happened and affect the well-being of the individual and others. Improper hand washing can also pose a risk. Dirty kitchen surfaces and equipment can spread infections, not covering hair when cooking can pose a risk to individual as can not reporting faulty equipment when working or not having cleaning materials can also be unsafe. In terms of health and safety not having risk assessments in place when a service user hurts themselves. Staff not checking when a service user is ill or unsteady on their feet. Staff not recording in care plans about a service user’s wellbeing and health and not monitoring them. Other unsafe practices which also amount to abuse can occur such as leaving a service user on the toilet too long, ignoring or not listening to them. Marks on body not taken seriously and complaints not taken seriously can put them at more danger, harm and risk of abuse. I ensure that I keep to all the procedures for checking for abuse and the wellbeing of the individuals that I work with; by following these and the individual’s care plan I keep within the minimum standards of care and also work in a person centred way to make sure all individuals are happy and safe.
5.2 Explain the action to take if unsafe practices have been identified
If I identify unsafe practices then I must follow the whistle-blowing procedure and report to the appropriate person. I will report to my manager immediately or if it involves my manager then to another appropriate person. I will monitor all unsafe practices and make sure that I record and report in full all the evidence and then will talk to my manager because all unsafe practices are dangerous practices that could cause harm to the individual and others. For example, I talked to my manager last week about things being left on the stairs that may cause service users and others to fall over and hurt themselves. She has talked to the staff and now this has stopped.
5.3 Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response.
If suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response or if it has to do with my manager then I will report to the next level or manager. If it has to do with my manager then I will report to management, then to the social worker and safeguarding team and to the care quality commission and even to the police depending on the response I get. When I worked in a nursing home there was some abuse of service users being left too long on the toilet and I talked to the nurse in charge and changes were made immediately. I had to record the information and give the nurse and manager a copy of my confidential report. If the nurse or manager had not done this then I would follow the whistle blowing procedure.
P50117658.11 – 11 – Handle Information in health and social care settings
Understand the need for secure handling of information in health and social care setting
1.1 Identify the legislation that relates to the recording, storage and sharing of information in a health and social care setting
The legislation that relates to the recording, storage and sharing of information in a health and social care setting are:
? Data protection Act 1998 which covers 8 principles like personal data need to be protected and collected, their information must be confidential and can be accessed with their agreement.
? Freedom of information Act 2000 which give opportunities to get through all the information in the trust.
1.2 Explain why is important to have secure systems for recording and storing information in a health and social care setting
It is important to have secure systems because patients and individuals even staff members need to be protected from unauthorised persons.
The legislation requires the privacy of individuals and staff member’s which is important, again information is accessible only by people who have the right to know. It also stops people to steel other peoples’ information, to maintain the right of individual. In my ward information should be passed to the manager only in case of privacy.
2. Know to access support for handling information
2.1 Describe how to access guidance, information, and advice about handling information
To access guidance, information, and advice about handling is when staff has an induction, training, from colleagues and individuals, guidance about data protection. More again we can also access by going through the company policies and procedures, search information from the internet, going through the care plan with patient consent, through the code of practice like the General Social Care Council where we have guidance, information and how to handle information.

P50117658.16 – 16 – Dementia Awareness
1. Understand what Dementia is
1.1Explain what is meant by the term ‘Dementia?’
Dementia is persistent disorder with sign and symptom that occur when a brain or a mental processes is affected.
1.2Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia
The key functions affected by the dementia are:
The front lobe is a part of brain that control behaviour, movement and personality.
The parietal lobe is a part of brain that control language, special awareness and recognition of place, things and people.
The occipital lobe is a part of the brain that control eyesight and ability to see.
The temporal lobe is the one that control speech, hearing and memory.
1.3 Explain why depression delirium age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia
The may be mistaken to dementia because they show the same signs of cognitive impairment and similar symptoms.
2 Understand key features of the theoretical models of dementia
2.1 Outline the medical model of Dementia
The medical model views dementia as a disease that harms the brain and causes a loss of mental functioning. They focused on disease such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson disease, Huntington’s disease.
2.2 Outline the social model of dementia
The social model of dementia view dementia as a form of disability. It is trying to figure out how the person with dementia feels and the way it affect them and their life style.
2.3 Explain why dementia should be viewed as a disability
Dementia is viewed as a disability because it affects people in different area of the body; a patient with dementia can lose the speaking possibility or cannot understand
3. Know the most commons types of dementia and their causes
3.1 List the most common causes of dementia
The commons causes are:
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Vascular disease
• Dementia with levy bodies
• Frontal-temporal dementia
3.2 Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the commons causes of dementia
The signs and symptoms of dementia are:
• Difficulties to speak, remember and confusions when making decisions.
• Not easy to use the right language
• Memory loss
• Person’s movement low and trip can causes falls
• Inappropriate behaviour
• Hallucination
• Double vision
• Mood swings
• Problems with balance
• Difficulties with feeling
3.3 Outline the risk factors for the most common causes of dementia
The risk factors are:
• High risk of developing dementia
• High risk of high blood pressure which can cause stroke
• High cholesterol in food can increase risk of having stroke
• Huntington’s disease can cause dementia
3.4 Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia
Prevalence for different types of dementia is:
• Alzheimer’s 62%
• Vascular dementia 17%
• Dementia with levy bodies 4%
• Frontal-temporal dementia 2%
4. Understand factors relating to an individual’s experience of dementia
4.1 Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age, type of dementia, and level of ability and disability