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The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Pakistani dramas on married and
unmarried women’s mental health and also its positive and negative effect on mood.
We are three members in the group who proceeded the research work. The sample
comprised N=200 in which 100 were married women having age in between 21 to 70 years and
100 were unmarried women having age in between 16 to 27 years . The data was collected from
different places like universities of Lahore, different cities and societies. We have used statistical
tools to analyze the results as demographic, psychometric, correlation, regression, and t test.
Result demonstrated that Pakistani dramas have deep impact on the lives of Pakistani women but
the effects are more pronounced on married women, because most of them were house wives and
spend much of their time at home. Some of them like to watch TV dramas with their family but
mostly they like to watch dramas separately.
Pakistani dramas also effect cultural values, language and life style of the generation. As
most of the dramas are following an in-between culture of west and east. Mostly they effect the
minds of the viewers in a negative manner by showing the negative aspects of life. Intense drama
watching may lead to a stressed condition as women wait anxiously for the next episode. Results
emphasize that a viewer must watch TV dramas in a controlled and available time and should not
be addicted to them.
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Chapter 1
1. Introduction
Drama exerts a strong influence on everyday life of people. It became an important part of
life and affects people behavior. Dramas are a great source of entertainment, inspiration, the
stirring of emotions, and a substitute for social life for many who watch. Women watches drama
for many reasons, the first reason is that they are entertained by the supposed reality that is
portrayed. The second reason is that women loves watching drama because of the fact that it stirs
their emotion. Another reason is that women get inspiration from the dramas they watch
(Lehmann, 2006).
The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Pakistani dramas on married and
unmarried woman’s mental health and also its positive and negative effect on mood.
Dramas have different impact on different individuals according to their perceptual
abilities. Watching too many dramas effects the mental health of women and it also have positive
and negative effect on mood (Archon, 2012).
1.1Watching Dramas and Mental Health
Dramas strongly effect people’s mental health. Watching too much television causes
fatigue, anxiety and depression. Women who watches drama reported feeling anxious for the next
episode. There are many researches on the consequences of watching too much television.
According to a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, watching television is one of
the most common leisure time activities in the US. Usually, American spend two hours and 49
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minutes every day in watching television, and it represents over more than 50% of their everyday
leisure activities (Karmakar ; Kruger, 2016).
Watching Drama is also linked with depression. And a recent study by Texas A;M
revealed that people who watches too much television feels lonely and depressed. They also found
that these people have of lack of self-regulation to stop, suggesting that it causes an addictive
behavior (Harrington, 2001).
1.2 Watching Dramas and Its Positive Effects
Dramas can have positive impact on its viewers. There is a lot of researches about the
positive influences of dramas especially on women. The positive influence of drama is that it helps
to releases stress. Drama is a great source of entertainment and whenever people are stressed they
watch dramas to release their stress (Brodie M, Foyer U, Readouts V, Baer N, Miller C, Flournoy
R, et al. 2001).
Another positive influence of drama is that it introduces you to different cultures and
values of your country. It helps you to know about the culture, norms and values of other people
living in your country. It also helps you to get information about different aspects of life, which
may help you in future (Kudos, 2011).
1.3 Watching Dramas and Its Negative Effect
Watching Dramas have many negative effect on women life. Watching too much drama
is bad for health. A study conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health shows
that watching too much television can remarkably increase the risk of getting obesity and diabetes.
Another investigation completed at the University of Rhode Island found that drawn out TV
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watching diminishes watcher’s feeling of self-efficacy in keeping up individual wellbeing (Archon,
2012).
Drama feeds false information. It is ruining the health, which is pretty bad in itself. But
other than ruining the health, it’s also ruins the perception of the people who watch. A standout
amongst the most destructive impacts of watching drama is that it seems to depict or report reality,
when in actuality it just permits to get a little look at what’s extremely going on (Conversion:
conversion about everything, every news, 2010).
Another dangerously bad effect of excessively watching dramas is the fact that it hinder
the ability to think. Women watch the drama and they think that whatever they are seeing is what
the reality is.
Another effect is that it wastes time. Time is precious and mostly women wastes their time
on watching TV. A survey shows that people in Western world spend 5-10 hours a day watching
television. Instead of living the life to the fullest, people sit in front of TV, which they have chosen
as a substitute for true living (Archon, 2012).
Drama have the power to influence people. It plays an important role in people’s life. It is
a great source of entertainment but it also effect people life in both positive and negative way.
Olenick (2000) indicates that in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh the women who are regularly
watching television and exposed to explicit the messages over family planning were more likely
to approve it. Also, the divorced or separated women in Brazil increased after the women
emancipation ideas spread through a TV channel and the circulation of concept of female pursuit
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of happiness and stress on individualism in revealed in study of Chong and La Ferrara (2009).
Therefore, studying the contribution of television Olken (2009) uncovered that more television
watching lowers the participation level in social life for example neighborhood associations,
school committees, and lower self-reported measures of trust. It proposes that getting to media
may likewise prompt surrogate social activities or household duties.
The contribution of this study is directed to explain the effect of Pakistani Dramas on
married and unmarried woman’s mental health and also provide its positive and negative effect on
mood. It shows that dramas have some influence in women life and it also affect their behavior
and mental health.
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CHAPTER II
2. Literature review
The focal point of this study is to evaluate the Psychological implication of Pakistani
dramas on married and unmarried women in Pakistan. The effects of Television and dramas on
viewer’s perceptions and emotions were explored by Gerbner and Gross, who proposed
‘cultivation theory’- a social action hypothesis of cultivation theory states that believing in reality
shown on Television is directly proportional to time spent on Television viewing. People, who
watch extensive Television believe that the reality portrayed on it is true (Gerbner ; Gross, 1976).
Women watching dramas perceive that the story of the girl shown in the drama directly
portrayed her life and she starts following the decisions the girl made in drama. On the other hand,
the women showed in dramas are portrayed opposite to the real life women. A study was done on
the portrayed of women in dramas and real life by. TV has been intensely censured in the well
known press for the way it portrays women. Restricted and stereotyped depictions of women may,
as per a few essayists, develop misguided judgments among the general population about the way
women are or ought to be. In another examination of this issue a study contemplate was embraced
with a vast British example in the London ITV locale in which information were acquired on TV
seeing practices and view of the way women are depicted on TV and convictions about how they
are or ought to be, all things considered. Results demonstrated that exclusive weight of activity
dramatization seeing was essentially identified with respondents’ view of women. Substantial
watchers of activity dramatization content were more probable than light watchers to see women
as a general rule as independent, not unruly with other unruly, not depend on attractiveness to get
on, and not engrossed by sentimental undertakings. Be that as it may, substantial activity watchers
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additionally had a tendency to trust that most women really need to end up moms, and don’t need
professions, and all the more essentially that women should be this way. Just in a few regards were
these connections consonant with those surmised by content investigators (Gunter ; Weber,
2007).
A study was also done in Pakistan about the projection of positive image of women
through media. The results of this study shows that Media is a viable medium to increase any
philosophy so in context of sexual orientation portrayal media can assume an essential part.
Women portrayal in media and their projection through media means that the socio-social patterns
any general public is following. Women projection in Pakistani media isn’t totally positive. Women
are still overwhelmingly anticipated as beauty objectified or in stereotypical roles. In any case,
there are clear indications of change with expanding number of female current undertakings’ news
stays; women are influencing their due place in scholarly to talk (Malik ; Kiani, 2012).
Women are more vulnerable to follow the themes shown in television a study was done
to investigate the Moderating Role of Gender and Compulsive Buying Tendencies in the
Cultivation Effects of TV Show and TV Advertising: A Cross Cultural Study between the United
States and South Korea. Cultivation effect has been one of the dominant theories in mass
communication studies to explain the impact of television contents on viewers. Using cross
cultural samples from the United States (n = 298) and South Korea (n = 1,136), they investigated
two major research themes: (a) the direct impact of television shows (i.e., dramas and movies) and
television advertising on the audience’s perceived “fear of crime” and perceived “materialistic
society,” and (b) the resonance (moderating) role of gender and compulsive buying tendency on
the cultivation effects. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence of cultivation
effects in both cultures. The outcomes likewise propose that the cultivation impacts of TV
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programs and TV advertisements on watchers’ apparent dread of wrongdoing and view of a
materialistic culture are more grounded for females than for guys in the two societies. At long last,
watchers’ impulsive purchasing inclinations are observed to be a moderator between TV promoting
and impression of a materialistic culture in Korea, though such directing effect isn’t noteworthy in
the United States (Kwak, Zink Han ; Dominick, 2009).
A study was done on the impact of watching cable dramas shows that they effect the
lifestyle of women. This examination explores the “impacts of satellite TV on the life examples of
women in Lahore, Pakistan” through survey using interviews as an apparatus of information
gathering. It focused on 432 women matured 18-40 years and survey satellite TV for a base two a
long time. The investigation recorded the respondent’s utilization designs, level of survey, favored
channels and projects, most loved watching time, control over remote and confinements on review.
It crossed checked the above components with the level of survey along with demographic
characteristics of the respondents. The real speculation contemplated was “more prominent the
presentation to digital TV more noteworthy the effect on the lives of women.” The sub-speculation
included ‘substantial watchers have more prominent impact on their exercises, family and social
association designs, social practices, household and individual use, and they are more impacted by
the TV characters particularly portraying western and urban Indian women than the direct and light
watchers. Both the hypothesis were proved correct through the results (Zia, 2001).
Ashraf and Islam .M.U., (2014) conducted research ‘Media Activism and impact on
the psychology of Pakistan society’ in the region Pakistan has been considered the most vibrant in
media landscape. The number of media outlets has significant increase in 2002, the quantitative
development of media outlets has emerged along with an increasing activism media. Media
relation has also played a significant role in strength of democratic institution in the country. As
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well as the media activism have also caused tremendous collateral damage to the society capitalist
media houses is the major cause of media activism. Which is overriding commercial interest in
coverage of tragedian by Pakistani media. The first manifest the most in non-professionalization
of the media activism. The media activism effect the people thought opinion perception. The media
activism has positive as well as negative influence on the people psychology (Ashraf ;Islam.M.U.,
2014).
Ali, Khalid and Hassan, 2015 Conducted research ‘The impact of Indian dramas on
language and dressing of females of village Sahiwal district Sialkot. Data collection was conducted
by using a survey questionnaire 100 participant including 16-30 year’s women were selected who
were viewing cable television for a minimum 2 year’s. This study recorded. The viewing refer
channels favorite watching time and control over the remote. This investigate these factor with
specific age marital status of the responded result indicate the Indian media trying to cultivate their
culture in a society. This mean women are in village uses to their select Indian dresses as well as
also used to use in the Hindi words in their conversation intentionally and unintentional (Ali,
Khalid & Hassan., 2015).
A research was conducted on ‘The Effect of Acting upon the Human Mind’ acting is the
wearing of a mask, apparently living the life of another person. The motive behind the research
conducted is to estimate the effects of different roles on an actor’s personal life. In our research
we contact four experienced factors and ask them to another a mock interview designed for the
scale of research. The result show that local actors are effected very little, and there are no identity
issues for them. Situations of undeveloped acting fields has been discussed to demonstrate the
results in an arranged manner.
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Different psychological theories have been reproved through the research work,
Acting has a very important impact on the personal identity of a well-known person so one should
be very careful in selecting the roles. So that there may be no conflict between a people’s real
&fake life. The extent of acting also depends upon the time period of a role. The longer the time
period, the more different for the actor to remove the effect of the role.
Emotions are also related to acting. Sometimes a person may become more
understanding in personal life after playing a particular role. Experience in life shape the way that
an actor approach a character. Celebrity impersonators are another who mimic or play other
celebrities for the sake entertainment (Summit. 2013).
2.1Significance of study
Drama addiction is so far very dangerous as it affects the normal daily activities of women.
After reviewing the literature, it is noticed that many researches are done on this topic in foreign
countries.
The purpose of our study is that it will help the future researchers to get knowledge from
it and this study is important with a view point that it provides the level of drama addiction in
Pakistan. The negative effects such as sleep disturbance, work problem and academic condition
make them aware about the control of watching dramas.
This study will be helpful to determine the relationship between drama addiction and
mental health problems and positive and negative affect on mood.
2.2Aims and Objectives
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? To investigate the effect of watching Pakistani dramas on mental health of married and
unmarried women.
? To investigate the effect of marital status on addiction of Pakistani dramas in married and
unmarried women.
2.3Hypothesis
H1. There would be a relation in drama addiction and mental health and positive and
negative effect on mood.
H2. Drama addiction would predict mental health and positive and negative effect on
mood.
H3. There would be difference in drama addiction in married and unmarried women.
Drama Addiction
Mental Health Problem
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
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Chapter III
3. Method
3.1Research Design
Correlational research design was used to find the Psychological Implications of Pakistani
Dramas on married and unmarried women.
3.2Sample
The sample was consist of N=200 women (n=106 married, n=94 unmarried). The married
women was approached from different cities of Pakistan and the unmarried from the universities
of Lahore. The age range of married women was 21 to 60 years and the age range of unmarried
women was 17 to 25 years.
Two fifty women were approached but fifty refused to participate in the research. The
unmarried women refused to participate due to their hectic work schedule. And the married women
refused because they did not want to disclose the personal information. The response rate of the
sample was 89%. As eleven questionnaires were not filled properly. The mean age of married
women is 35.03 and standard deviation is 10.65 and mean age of unmarried women is 20.63 and
standard deviation is 2.08. The mean of the married women job is 1.82 and standard deviation is
.38 and for unmarried is 1.9 and .29 respectively.
3.3Selection criteria
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The sample was selected on the basis of marital status. Both married and unmarried women
were included. Only female participants were included in the research. Only those women were
selected who can read and understand the Urdu language.
Table.1
Demographic characteristics of Sample(N=200)
Married Unmarried
V f(%) M(SD) f(%) M(SD)
Age 35.03(10.65) 20.63(2.08)
Birth order 3.11(1.81) 2.77(1.73)
Number of
siblings

1 11(1.1)
2 3(2.8) 6(6.4)
3 11(10.4) 19(20.2)
4 13(12.3) 28(29.8)
5 15(14.2) 20(21.3)
6 16(15.1) 10(10.6)
7 16(15.1) 4(4.3)
8 16(15.1) 3(3.2)
9 10(9.4) 1(1.1)
10 2(2.1)
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12 6(5.7)
Number of
children
3.61(2.51) 1.00(0)
00 7(6.6)
1 11(10.4)
2 16(15.1)
3 22(20.8)
4 21(19.8)
5 9(8.5)
6 5(4.7)
7 4(3.8)
8 1(.9)
9 1(.9)
10 2(1.9)
11 1(.9)
12 2(1.9)
Family
System

Nuclear 58(54.7) 72(76.6)
Joint 47(44.3) 21(22.3)
Job 1.82(.38) 1.9(.29)
Yes 18(17.0) 9(9.6)
No 86(81.1) 85(9.04)
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Table 1 shows the frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviations of sample
characteristics. The table shows that the most participants were from nuclear families and they did
not do a job.
3.4Assessment measures
3.4.1Drama Addiction Scale
The Facebook addiction scale (Andreessen, & colleagues) is a 6 item scale. Andreessen
and colleagues suggest that scoring “often” or “very often” on at least four of the six items may
suggest the respondent is addicted to dramas. They also found that high scores on the BDAS were
linked to going to bed very late and getting up very late. The Facebook addiction scale was changed
into Drama addiction scale for research purpose. This scale was translated in national Pakistani
language Urdu. The translated version of the scale by Zafar and Kausar (2013) was used. The
reliability of this scale is 94.5%.
3.4.2Mental Health Inventory
The Mental Health Inventory (MHI) is a method for evaluating mental health issues such
as anxiety, depression, behavioral control, positive effect, emotional ties and life satisfaction. This
instrument helps in the measure of overall emotional functioning. The Mental Health Inventory
includes 38 items in which the respondent uses a 6-point Likert-style response and it can generally
be done without help. The test takes approximately 5-10 minutes to administer. According to the
National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Mental Health Inventory has a reported .93 Cronbach
alpha rating. The reliability of its subscales are .78, .59, .51, .73, .55, and .31 respectively. This
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scale was translated in national Pakistani language Urdu. The translated version of the scale by
Zafar and Kausar (2013) was used.
3.4.3Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS (Watson, Clark, and Telligent, 1988) is a
20 item scale. Often used to measure both positive and negative affect on mood. There are two
subscales of PANAS, Positive PANAS and Negative PANAS. The reliability of positive PANAS
is.78 and negative PANAS is .79. This scale was translated in national Pakistani language Urdu.
The translated version of the scale by Zafar and Kausar (2013) was used.
3.5Procedure:
Firstly, the permission was taken from the respective author to use the assessment
measure. The assessment measures that was used were translated into Urdu version. The
permission letter to collect the data was provided by Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore
Garrison University, Lahore. The data collection was started after the official permission of author
and university. The married and unmarried women were requested to fill the questionnaire. The
response rate was 100% although some married women hesitate in the beginning to fill the
questionnaire but later on they filled the questionnaire. The respondents were thanked for their
corporation. After the data collection, the data was entered into Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS) and then the results were analyzed.
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CHAPTER IV
4. Results
In Table 2 the Psychometric Properties of Drama Addiction, Mental Health and Positive and
Negative Affect Schedule in Married and Unmarried Women is presented.
Table 2
Psychometric Properties of Drama Addiction, Mental Health and Positive and Negative Affect
Schedule in Married and Unmarried Women (N=200)
Range
Variables K M S.D ? Actual Potential
DA 6 12.96 5.70 .80 6-30 6-30
Mental Health Problem
ANX 9 34.53 7.28 .78 9-54 9-54
DEP 5 19.73 4.04 .59 5-29 5-30
LBEC 10 36.35 5.92 .51 10-49 10-60
GPA 10 33.27 7.14 .73 10-51 10-60
ET 2 5.76 2.29 .55 2-11 2-12
LS 2 6.57 2.03 .31 2-12 2-12
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
PA 9 27.55 7.04 .78 9-44 9-45
NA 11 24.13 8.12 .79 11-54 11-55
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Note. K= no. of items, DA=Drama Addiction, ANX= Anxiety, DEP=Depression, LBEC=Lose of Behavior and Emotion Control, GPA=General Positive Affect, ET=Emotional Ties, LS=Life Satisfaction, PA=Positive Affect and NA=Negative Affect
It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a difference in drama addiction,
mental health problem and positive and negative affect schedule of Pakistani Drama in married
and unmarried women. The independent sample t-test was applied to find out the difference in
drama addiction, mental health problems and positive and negative affect schedule and the
results are presented in Table 3.
Table 3
Difference in Drama Addiction, Mental Health Problem and Positive Affect and Negative
Affect of Pakistani Dramas in Married and Unmarried Women (N=200)
Variables Married Women Unmarried
Women
t P CI
M S.D M S.D LL UL
DA 13.95 6.24 11.96 4.92 2.43 .16 .38 3.60
Mental Health Problem
ANX 35.23 6.92 33.73 7.63 1.46 .15 -.53 3.53
DEP 20.31 3.90 19.07 4.12 2.18 .03 .12 2.36
LBEC 37.27 5.48 35.30 6.24 2.38 .02 .34 3.60
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GPA 32.91 6.96 33.67 7.35 -.76 .45 -2.76 1.23
ET 5.61 2.40 5.91 2.17 -.93 .35 -.94 .34
LS 6.25 2.12 6.93 1.87 -2.36 .02 -1.23 -.11
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
PA 27.27 7.37 27.85 6.68 -.58 .56 -2.55 1.39
NA 24.40 8.92 23.84 7.15 .48 .63 -1.71 2.80
Note. DA=Drama Addiction, ANX= Anxiety, DEP=Depression, LBEC=Lose of Behavior and Emotion Control, GPA=General Positive Affect, ET=Emotional Ties, LS=Life Satisfaction, PA=Positive Affect and NA=Negative Affect
Results shows that there is a significant difference in mental health problem
(depression, loss of behavior and emotion control and life satisfaction) of married and unmarried
women.
It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a relationship between drama
addiction, mental health problem and positive and negative affect schedule. Pearson product
moment correlation was used to investigate the relationship between drama addiction, mental
health problems and positive and negative affect. The results are shown in Table 4.
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Table 4
Relationship in Drama Addiction, Mental Health Problem and Positive and Negative Affect of
Pakistani Dramas in Married and Unmarried Women (N=200)
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
DA – -.03 -.06 .04 -.18 -.11 .13 .11 .36**
Mental Health Problem
ANX -.16 – .65** .59** -.33** -.34** -.23* -.04 -.40**
DEP -.07 .70** – .52** -.22* -.30** -.25** .14 -.36**
LBEC -.23* .68** .67** – -.12 -.23* -.07 -.07 -.25*
GPA .63 -.15 -.10 .16 – .60** .45** -.15 .20*
ET .03 -.05 .01 .02 .48** – .38** -.03 .13
LS -.05 -.18 -.30** .01 .67** .43** – .14 .22*
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
PA -.02 .15 .09 .02 -.30** -.17 -.28** – .05
NA .08 -.47** -.38** -.30** .15 .16 .18 -.19 –
Note. Results of married women are presented in above diagonal. Results of unmarried women are presented in below diagonal.
DA=Drama Addiction, ANX= Anxiety, DEP=Depression, LBEC=Lose of Behavior and Emotion Control, GPA=General Positive Affect, ET=Emotional Ties, LS=Life Satisfaction, PA=Positive Affect and NA=Negative Affect
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