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Title: The Progression of Rwanda to the United Nations Sustainable Development
Goal one, Target one.
End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

Low socioeconomic status is intrinsically linked to low health outcomes and low life expediency (Munyaneza, Muhammad, & Chen, 2016). Poverty is often caused by high unemployment, little access to education, food resources and health care. People living in poverty are vulnerable, to disease from dirty water and infections (United Nations, 2016). Often stigmatised these members of society become marginalised having to live on the outskirts of the city. Extreme poverty is defined by the World bank as living on less than $1.25 a day (World Bank data, 2018). Currently there is 783 million people that is equal to 10% of the world’s working population, most of these people live in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, such as Rwanda (United Nations, 2016). Rwanda is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country in Africa, 63% of Rwanda’s population live in extreme poverty, however, it is my belief through strong leadership, investment in human capital and most significantly reconciliation and forgiveness, President Paul Kagame has transformed Rwanda into one of the world’s fastest growing economies, pathing the way to end poverty for all Rwandan’s by 2030.
1 Historical factor: how the past influences the present

Rwanda in colonial times was occupied by the Belgians, however, the population consists of two ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu. These two ethnic groups have a long history in conflict largely due to Belgian colonial policies (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). Policies that divided these two groups based on how causian they looked and wealth or how many cows they owned. This was known as the ten-cow rule, those that owned more than ten cows were considered Tutsis and the rest Hutu. (Edmondson, 2009). The Tutsis had economic wealth so were considered by the Belgian’s privileged and were given bureaucratic jobs. This gave rise to an uprising by the Tutsi who stood for independence. The Belgian’s in response got behind the Hutu and supported them in forming their own political party. 1962 Rwanda gained independence, the Hutu took power and over one hundred thousand Tutsi fled to escape the violence form Hutu gangs (Edmondson, 2009). Rwanda continued as a nation of political instability deepening the resentment and prejudiced hostility between these two ethnic groups. The Genocide of 1994 led to the deaths of almost one million Tutsis. Mascaraed by the Hutus on demand by the Hutu government. April 4 1994 the killings begun and lasted for 100 days. The genocide has been remembered as one of the world’s worst events in history. While ordinary Hutus were slaughtering their Tutsi neighbours the world stood by and did nothing. Rwanda’s infrastructure was destroyed and the economy in tatters. Those that were lucky to not be killed or have become a killer were traumatised as they watched their Mothers and Fathers hacked apart in front of them, the violence so great it permanently destroyed the social and cultural makeup of Rwanda causing generational trauma and displaced hundreds of thousands as they fled the violence or fled in fear of repercussions once the Tutsi political army put an end to the massacre in July 1994. This army was led by Paul Kagame Rwanda’s present today
(Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183).
July 1994 the RPF a Tutsi lead army from the neighbouring country took control of Kigali and formed an administration and begun a new ruling based on the principles of power-sharing and national reconciliation which were the basis of the 1993 Arusha Accords (Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183). The administration comprised five political parties: the RPF, Christian Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Republican Democratic Movement and Social Democratic Party. Pasteur Bizimungu was inaugurated as President for a five-year term; the RPF military chief Paul Kagame became Vice-President and Defence Minister (Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183). Kagame became president of Rwanda in 2000 and has since turned the war-torn country into one of the cleanest, safest and fast-growing economic hubs in the nation. (Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183).

2 Cultural factors: how culture impacts on our lives;
President Kagame reformed Rwanda’s culture by drawing upon aspects of ancient Rwandan practices such as umuganda, the act of community service, unity and dedication to country (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). Reinforced through the active involvement of all citizens and levels of government providing service to the community, removing rubbish, building roads/schools as well as building homes for those citizens who were without. One day per month community members gather together and work on the projects the community needs, after the work is done all citizens participate in a banquet and celebrate with music and cultural songs (Crawley, 2000). By coming together communities build close relationships as they discuss and resolve issues as a community, paving the way for economic growth and a better future for all Rwandans (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). Rwanda’s steady economic growth can also be attributed to Kagame’s regime rhetoric of reconciliation and ethnic unity, gender equality and investment in education. Rwandan culture based upon this rhetoric remains a driving force behind their developments in luxury tourism, information and communication technologies, modernized agriculture and in the medical health sectors (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). The new Rwandan culture boasts Rwandan solutions to Rwandan problems. Evident by their innovative methane gas sourced power, a solution to the country’s past power crisis (Munyaneza, Muhammad, ; Chen, 2016). It has been projected that Rwanda will be able to satisfy 100% of its populations electrical needs reliably and sustainably by 2022-2024 (Munyaneza, Muhammad, ; Chen, 2016).

3 Structural factors: how particular forms of social organisation affect our lives;
Post-genocide, Rwanda.
With the formation of new government, many new laws were made addressing issues and assist in the rebuilding of the war-torn country. They made a law to eliminate all reference to ethnicity in identification documents and banned the use of references to Tutsi and Hutu ethnicity. A declaration was made that all citizens from then on to be known as Rwandans. By doing this they rebuilt the country while fostering community spirit and reinforcing unity across the country (Kohen., et al 2011).

Today Woman make up a little over half of the Rwandan population, as mainly men were killed in the genocide (Crawley, 2000). Social roles of women changed as they had to step up and fill the position traditionally been a held by men (Crawley, 2000). It became socially accepted for attend community meetings and have her say regarding family matters, just as it became the norm for woman to seek work, many becoming agriculture labours (Crawley, 2000). This shift in traditional roles lead to the raise of new laws that gave men and woman equal rights to inherit property. The 1994 genocide which had targeted and killed mainly men causing a massive upheaval in Rwandan society bringing about a change in social structure (Crawley, 2000).
Woman are over represented in Rwanda’s parliament, demonstrating Kagams commitment to address gender equality. President Kagame is very popular among his people, delivering on set goals as he defined in his vision 2020, which includes ending poverty, delivering power, education and advancing the nations standard of health care for all just to name a few.
Kidanemariam, (2011) states “The experience of the east African nation of Rwanda which is being hailed as the “poster child” for its remarkable success in implementing a comprehensive health care system under global public health framework in the last 1 5 years is presented to serve as an inspiration for other African countries.” (p163)

4. Critical factors:
President Paul Kagame, the face of the new Rwanda, adored by his people sharing in a nation dedicated to country and achieving strength through unity and reconciliation. Assuming power in 2000, Kagame demanded transparency in governance, a democracy in decision making and zero tolerance to corruption. Rwanda reinvented itself presenting to the world as a nation of stability, beauty, sustainable growth and free of crime, earning the right to call himself a visionary and a true leader. Kagame strategically utilised foreign aid and private investment to improve health, expand and developed education, build infrastructure, modernise agriculture and develop a hub of information technology communication, connecting people and opening up an endless flow of business opportunities and creating employment. As a result the people have become empowered and in the last few years have become quite the enponures. Communities work as one, in collaboration to come up with solutions for their own problems supporting a sense of social cohesions . The people of Rwanda are catapulting forward with developments reported in all sectors, at a rate never seen before. In the past oyears one million people have lifted their poverty stats and not live above the poverty line. elivering one million people out of poverty in the last decade, cutting the national poverty rate by 14%. According to the 12th edition of the World Bank Economic report, June 2018, Rwanda’s export and agriculture continued positive progress reaching an annual growth of 6.1% and is expected to accelerate to express a growth of 7.5% in 2019.

“Rwanda has a unique opportunity to create a positive virtuous cycle of producing a generation of well-nourished children who grow, thrive, and reach their full potential, contribute to human capital development, and contribute to future economic growth,” said Miriam Schneidman, Lead Health Specialist and World Bank’s
(1267)
References

Crawley, M., (2000) Rwandan social structure evolves, retrieved from: https://www.csmonitor.com/2000/0621/p6s1.html

Desrosiers, M., Thomson, S., (2011), Rhetorical legacies of leadership: projections of ‘benevolent leadership’ in pre- and post-genocide Rwanda, The Journal of Modern African Studies 43(3) 429-453 DOI:10.1017/S0022278X11000279

Edmondson, Laura, (2009), Genocide Unbound: Erik Ehn, Rwanda, and an Aesthetics of Discomfort. Theatre Journal 61(1), 65-83. Retrieved from:
https://search-proquest-com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/docview/216065969?accountid=10382

Kidanemariam, A. (2011). RETHINKING HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION IN AFRICA: THE QUEST FOR AN INTEGRATED MODEL. Journal of Third World Studies, 28(2), 161-178. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/docview/903426680?accountid=10382

Kohen, A., Zanchelli, M., Drake, L., (2011), Personal and political reconciliation in post-genocide Rwanda, Social Justice Research 24(1) 85-106.
DOI:10.1007/s11211-011-0126-7

Munyaneza, J., Muhammad, W., Chen, B., (2016) Overview of Rwanda energy sector: From energy shortage to sufficiency, Science Direct Energy Procedia 104, 215-230 DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2016.12.037
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – the United Nations Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals

World Bank Group – International Development, Poverty, & Sustainability
Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/

http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/07/12/rwanda-achieving-food-security-reducing-poverty-moving-up-the-value-chain
https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/06/21/world-bank-rwanda-economic-update

Kagame’s management style and approach to complex problems by breaking them down into easy obtainable solutions, empowering young Rwanda’s self-assurance for future aspirations (Moghalu et al., 2017). Kagame’s focus is on the needs of his people, while boasting a Western style modern leadership regime, Kagame incorporates Rwandan core values aiding enhancement in the lives of his people. (Moghalu et al., 2017). Kagame’s leadership is palpable in his ability to communicating his forward vision for Rwanda to the country’s average citizen sharing social cohesion and restoring a sense of pride amongst its people (Moghalu et al., 2017).
targets regarding performance targets are closely monitored, with officials being relieved of their positions for failing to meet these mandates (Moghalu et al., 2017).

Strong leadership is again demonstrated by Kagame’s management style and approach to complex problems by breaking them down into easy obtainable solutions, empowering Rwanda’s people creating a sense of pride and belief in future aspirations (Moghalu et al., 2017). Kagame’s focus is on the needs of his people, while boasting a Western style modern leadership regime, Kagame incorporates Rwandan core values aiding enhancement in the lives of his people.
A2 evedence of human capital
Rwanda today is largely the product one man’s vision and grit, a so-far successful but still fragile experiment at transformational leadership in Africa out of the ashes of conflict and poverty. If the country is “Rwanda, Inc.,” Paul Kagame is its Chief Executive Officer, and he is committed to a “pro-poor” model of economic growth that prioritizes eradicating rural poverty based on a national Vision 2020 that is being implemented on target.7 That Kagame has delivered returns to his country-corporation, and therefore is domestically popular, is beyond dispute, and he is eagerly observed as a leadership case study on the continent.
Another aspect of Rwanda’s leadership, one of fundamental relevance to Africa’s true emergence on the global economic and political stage, is Kagame’s attitude to foreign aid, which has broadly failed to achieve much in Africa beyond maintaining the aid-industrial complex in the Western world and incompetent leaders in several African countries who believe, vainly, that outside assistance is what will create prosperity for Africans. Rwanda has benefited from large amounts of foreign aid, to the tune of $1 billion annually, and is viewed as the sub-Saharan Africa country that has utilized aid most efficiently and effectively.10 Thus, Western governments and bureaucrats have viewed Kagame and his Rwanda as a great example of aid effectiveness. africa’s leadership conundrum Y
Yet, Kagame is contemptuous of foreign aid, which he views, correctly, as detracting from the dignity of Africans, and has treated aid as a necessary but transient evil. He is systematically reducing his country’s aid dependence, encouraging a self-confident culture of entrepreneurship in young Rwandans. Laden with bitter memories of the world’s failure to intervene and stop the genocide of 1994 in his country, the Rwandan leader has little faith in the aspirational contraption known as the “international community.”
While he has been adroit in exploiting the guilt of Western nations for their failure to stop the genocide and has been described as “the global elite’s favorite strongman,”11

With men the primary victims in the ’94 genocide, women have more responsi- bilities now. A new law will give them inheritance rights.
June 21, 2000
• By Mike Crawley Special to The Christian Science Monitor
RUTONGO, RWANDA

Abondibana’s husband died back in 1988, she was unable to inherit his property. So her son gave her a small piece of land on which to live. But tragically, the son was murdered during the genocide. And, “when he died, his wife refused to give me any land,” says Abondibana.
She stayed in the house, living off food from her neighbors, but eventually felt intimidated by threats from her daughter-in-law and her male accomplices. “I feared for my life,” she said. “I thought I could be killed anytime if I remained in the house.”
Conflicts over land in Rwanda – long a factor in one of the world’s most densely populated countries – became no less intense after the genocide. Hundreds of thousands of Tutsis returned from exile, hoping to recover property they had left behind as far back as 1959. Thousands of Hutus fled the country, for fear of reprisals or justice, leaving land to be quickly claimed by others. And with so many men killed in the genocide, women became the heads of hundreds of thousands of households – 34 percent of them, according to the government.
International aid agencies have found a newly receptive environment for initiatives to meet women’s needs and train them in new skills, all aimed at increasing their participation in society and encouraging peace. Women’s groups have become key forums both for local activism and decisionmaking. And more women are working in formal employment, although their numbers remain small.
“Traditionally, a woman was not a breadwinner. Now she has had to become one,” says Ms. Inyumba, who was minister of gender during the law’s drafting process.
Organizations like Haguruka (Stand Up), a women’s and children’s rights group, were engulfed by hundreds of women asking for legal help after being turfed from their land. Even though the Rwandan Constitution has enshrined equal rights since 1992, the practice on the ground was vastly different.
“The Constitution was not applied,” explains Edda Mukabagwiza, executive director of Hagururka. Judges – almost exclusively men – tended to side with cultural norms over constitutional niceties, she says. “The woman had no rights to property because property belonged to men. Only boys had the right to inherit. The most important thing in this new law is the equality between women and men, girl and boy.”
Two provisions in the law are key. If a parent divides land while still alive, the law says: “All children, without distinction between girls and boys … have a right to the partition made by their ascendants.” After a parent’s death, the law says all children “inherit in equal parts without any discrimination between male and female children.”
The law also contains detailed clauses explaining inheritance rules in the event of such instances as the death of a spouse when there are no children, and the rights of so-called “illegitimate” children. Another provision that helped Abondibana’s case says a surviving spouse must assist needy parents.
Legal experts say the system is a departure from the laws in most other African countries, which do not allow women the right to inherit. Passing the law was one thing: Implementing it is another. Although some cases like Abondibana’s have been heard and won by the female petitioners, such decisions have mainly taken place in the superior courts. It will be tougher to change the attitudes of lower-level judges.
“There are a lot of differences between the law and the decisions that magistrates and local officials are making. This gap needs to be filled,” says Jean Marie Kamatali, dean of law at the National University of Rwanda in Butare.
Mr. Kamatali says the government isn’t doing enough to promote the new legislation. “Few Rwandans know the content of this law,” he says. “You need a lot of sensitization.”
“There’s going to need to be a huge sensitization campaign, not just for the judges and magistrates, but for the general population as well,” agrees Lisa Jones, a protection officer with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Kigali. Specific administrative regulations, she adds, are needed so that local officials know how to apply its principles.
The law took effect only last November. Inyumba says it will take time for the government’s sensitization campaign – which includes radio and TV items, written material and direct presentations to groups of students, youths and women – to have an impact.
She acknowledges that the battle against ingrained attitudes toward women is a tough one. And it’s not just men who cling to traditional beliefs.
“Some women, because of the culture, don’t believe they have rights,” says Mr. Mukabagwiza. “Not all men are against the law. Even in rural areas, some of them understand the principle.”
It’s a principle that changed Abondibana’s life. She won her court case just 15 days after the law took effect, having lost earlier in a lower court.
“My life is better, and I have good expectations that the future will be OK,” she says. “I can plant beans and give them to the children to eat.”

Structure factors 4.3. Private sector-led development
For Rwanda’s development, the emergence of a viable private sector that can take over as the principle growth engine of the economy is absolutely key. Not only will such a development be conducive for economic growth, but it will also ensure the emergence of a vibrant middle class of entrepreneurs, which will help develop and embed the principles of democracy. Although foreign direct investment will be encouraged, a local-based business class remains a crucial component of development.
The Government of Rwanda will foster private sector development as a catalyst; ensuring that infrastructure (specifically IT, transport and energy), human resources and legal frameworks are geared towards to stimulating economic activity and growth of private investments.
The continued development of the financial sector remains crucial with an increasing number of people accessing financial services. The financial sector must be able to provide the necessary capital for private sector development. The government aims to promote local business through the introduction of industrial parks and export processing zones in which foreign operators could partner with local businesses.
Particular attention will be paid to the labour market. More than 10 years into the implementation of Vision 2020, the Rwandan economy has been able to generate 1.2 million non-farm jobs. With population expected to reach around 13.5 million by 2020 and at least half the population depending on off-farm activities, it will therefore be necessary to create
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1.6 million off-farm jobs. This will require a substantial number of jobs created in the private sector.
4.4. Infrastructure development
The development of infrastructure is a crucial aspect in lowering the costs of doing business in Rwanda, which is essential to attracting domestic and foreign investments.
Land use management
Land use management is a fundamental tool in development. As Rwanda is characterized by acute land shortage, a land use plan has been developed to ensure its optimal utilization in urban and rural development. Currently, Rwanda’s scarce land resources still face a challenge of ineffective translation of the developed land use master plan into sector strategic plans and district development plans. In the coming years, Rwanda will ensure that every development plan is guided by the land use master plan. The recent land tenure regularization will increase security on ownership and improve productive land usage.
Rwanda will continue to pursue a harmonious policy of organized grouped settlements (umudugudization). Rural settlements organized into active development centres will be further equipped with basic infrastructure and services. While this system of settlement will continue to serve as an entry point into the development of non-agricultural income generating activities, land consolidation will be emphasized so as to create adequate space for modern and viable farming.
Urban development
By 2020, each town will have updated urban master plans with coordinated implementation of the plans. The country will develop basic infrastructure in urban centres and in other development poles, enabling the decongestion of agricultural zones. The proportion of those living in towns and cities will increase from 14.8% in 2010 to 35% in 2020 (and 10% in 2000). The income differential between towns and rural areas should remain within reasonable proportions, due to the decentralization of economic activities throughout the country.
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Transport
Rwanda is landlocked with high transport costs to the ocean ports of Kenya and Tanzania. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative lower costs of transport to the sea, notably through a regional rail extension to Isaka, Tanzania and an extension to the Ugandan Railway system. Furthermore, a second airport capable of serving, as a regional hub for the great lakes region will be developed. For the internal market, Rwanda has a reliable and safe transport network of feeder roads; however, these will continue to be maintained, extended and improved.
Communication ; ICT
Rwanda has made a rapid improvement in ICT with fibre optic network coverage all through the country, mobile telephone network coverage at almost 100%, with 45% mobile subscriptions in 2011. By 2020, Rwanda projects to have internet access at all administrative levels, for all secondary schools and for a large number of primary schools. Telephone services will be widespread in rural areas and efficiency of public services will have increased through the application of e-government principles. It is expected that mobile subscription will reach 60% and the number of internet users will reach at least 50 % (from 4.3% in 2010).
energy
Inadequate and expensive electricity supply constitutes a limiting factor to development. Wood is the main source of energy for 86.3% (2010) of the population down from 99% in 2000 which is a significant drop. This leads to massive deforestation and soil destruction. Imported petroleum products consume more than 17% of foreign exchange. Rwanda will therefore increase energy production and diversify into alternative energy sources.
To achieve this, Rwanda has considerable hydroelectric potential, in addition to large deposits of renewable methane gas in Lake Kivu, estimated at 60 billion cubic meters. In rural areas direct solar energy or photovoltaic energy can be used, whilst up to 1/3 of 155 million tons of peat deposit is currently exploitable. Rwanda projects that by 2020, at least 75% of the population will be connected to electricity (up from 2% in 2000 and 11% in 2010) and the consumption of wood will decrease from the current 86.3% to 50% of national energy consumption.
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Water
In 2010, 74.2% of Rwandans have access to clean water. The country is endowed with reserves that could provide enough water for both consumption and agricultural purposes. These include substantial rainfall (between 900 ; 1500 mm per year) and the abundance of lakes, streams and watercourses. Furthermore, there is an abundant supply of high altitude water in the western part of the country, which may be used in providing water by gravity to the southern and south-eastern regions of the country that face water shortages. Rwanda will continue to invest in protection and efficient management of water resources, as well as water infrastructure development to ensure that by 2020 all Rwandans have access to clean water.
Waste management
The transmission of various water- borne diseases can be attributed to the consumption of dirty and contaminated water. The unplanned and disorganized construction of towns without a suitable drainage system exacerbates sanitary problems. Sewerage and rainwater can destroy public roads or stagnate, creating ideal breeding grounds for both human and animal diseases. Since most houses are situated on the summit and on the slopes of hills, water sources are in constant danger of pollution by domestic sewerage and other human activities carried by the stream of water. The environmental impact and waste management has recently been taken into account by human settlements and industrial installations, but challenges remain.
By 2020, the rural and urban areas are to have sufficient sewerage and disposal systems. Each town is to be endowed with an adequate unit for treating solid wastes. Households will have mastered and be practicing measures of hygiene and waste disposal.
4.5. Productive high value and market oriented agriculture
Since independence, Rwanda’s economic policies have targeted agriculture as the main engine of economic growth. Though agriculture productivity has been increasing in the recent years, there is still room for improvement. It will be necessary to continue with the implementation of aggressive transformational policies that move towards a modern and more productive agriculture.
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Agricultural policy orientation will continue to focus on promoting intensification so as to increase productivity, promoting value addition, modernization and improved quality of livestock to achieve an average annual growth rate of 8.5%. The vision aims to replace subsistence farming by a fully, commercialized agricultural sector by 2020.
4.6. Regional and international integration
Rwanda considers regional economic integration as one of the crucial elements of achieving Vision 2020. To this end, Rwanda will continue pursuing an open, liberal trade regime, minimizing barriers to trade as well as implementing policies to encourage foreign direct investment. Furthermore, policies to promote competitive enterprises, exports and entrepreneurship will be emphasized. Economic zones for ICT based production will be crucial for enhancing competitiveness of Rwandan firms.
The vision of accessing larger regional markets will be accompanied through a program of investing in infrastructure to promote Rwanda as a logistics, telecommunication and financial hub. Furthermore, taking advantage of Rwanda’s comparative strategic position should be exploited in terms of warehouse functions in trade and commerce. Export processing zones, coupled with the industrial reforms noted above, will enable the country to consolidate its niche in services, communication and financial sectors and take advantage of growing regional co- operation in the Great Lakes/ Eastern African Region.
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5. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUeS OF VISION 2020
Alongside the 6 pillars, there are three cross-cutting areas of gender, environment and climate change; and science and technology.
5.1. Gender equality
Women make up 53% of the population and participate in subsistence agriculture more than men. They usually feed and provide care for their children and ensure their fundamental education. There has been tremendous progress in gender equality specifically in education (as the number of girls in primary and secondary education has surpassed boys with girls to boys ratio at 1.03) and in decision making positions (as of 2012 women represent about 56% of parliamentarians).
In order to strengthen gender equality and equity, Rwanda will further update and adapt its laws on gender. It will continue to support education for all, fight against poverty and practice a positive discrimination policy in favour of women with a focus in TVET, tertiary level and in employment opportunities. Gender will continue to be integrated as a cross-cutting issue in all development policies and strategies at both central and local government levels.
5.2. Natural resources, environment and climate change
To date, climate change is widely recognized as the major environmental problem facing the globe that is becoming inextricably linked to development. Rwanda is increasingly facing global climate change consequences including; flooding, resulting in disasters such as landslides that cost lives and resources, and droughts that adversely affect agricultural output. Other threats to the environment take the form of depletion of bio-diversity, degradation of ecosystems such as swamps and wetlands and pollution of waterways. Rwanda will continue to put in place strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change by focusing on developing eco-friendly policies and strategies in all sectors of the economy and by promoting green growth.
5.3. Science, technology and ICT
Rwanda will continue to invest in developing adequate, highly skilled scientists and technicians to satisfy the needs of the transition to knowledge-based economy. A knowledge based-economy will require innovative products that can be competitive in regional and global
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markets. Having laid the foundations for ICT to take-off in the country through the laying of the fibre optic cable network, Rwandans have a whole new world of opportunities to take advantage of. More importantly the government of Rwanda will encourage the use of ICT as a tool for self employment, innovation and job creation. Policies to encourage development of smart applications that meet economic needs and develop economic potential will be promoted amongst the youth. ICT as a tool for improving service delivery in both the private and public sector will be emphasized.

Africa’s Leadership Conundrum
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs; Medford Vol. 41, Iss. 2, (Summer 2017): 171-191.

Components: Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume(issue), page range. DOI

Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. (2017). Africa’s Leadership Conundrum. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 41(2), 171-191. Retrieved from
https://search-proquest-com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/docview/1933863752?accountid=10382
(Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183)
(Moghalu et al., 2017)

Introduction
From Murders to Mogul, Rwanda the scene of one of the biggest atrocities in mankind’s history. Looking at the Rwanda today it’s hard to imagine that only two decades ago Rwanda’s government had orchestrated the genocide of more than half a million people. The majority being Tutis but many moderate Hutus were also killed in a mere 90 days ().

A3 reconciliation and forgiveness
International and local gacaca trials in 1990s to 2000s delivered justice for those involved in the 1994 geniside enabling Tutsi and Hutus to live side by side. Furthermore the banning of ethnic identification and one of a unified Rwanda is foremost Kagame’s basis for his countries reconciliation and forgiveness policy. Rwandains throughout the country come together on the last Saturday of every month
Kigali, the capital city, is the cleanest in the continent—thanks to the orderly efficiency of Rwandan society and in part to the fact that, in order to prevent environmental degradation, one cannot enter the country with a plastic bag. Modern skyscrapers increasingly dot the Kigali skyline, and the country is clearly open for business.

.
Dictorship or demoracy… freedom of speech and dead or missing oppersion.

The Rwandan parliament recently amended the country’s constitution to allow Kagame to run for a third seven-year term in office, and after that two further terms of five years each. Thus, Paul Kagame could be Rwanda’s president until 2034. From an outsider’s perspective, this ought to be a difficult judgment call for Rwanda’s citizens, one between a leader who is providing effective and transformational leadership that is verifiable, but in a restricted political space and blooming political freedoms that might yield a return to divisive, ethnocentric politics that defined the country’s past and makes it potentially unsafe for the minority Tutsi.
This brings up the unpleasant but practically necessary question of whether, whenever Kagame leaves office after a long period as Rwanda’s helmsman, he will be succeeded by another Tutsi. Such a scenario, absent Kagame’s uniqueness against the immediate historical backdrop of the 1994 genocide, will likely generate significant hostility from the majority Hutu, who make up 85 percent of Rwandans. It could be interpreted as a signal of a return to earlier historical trends in which the minority Tutsi dominated Rwandan leadership and society before the tables turned in the Belgian-inspired Hutu “revolution” of 1959.
Kagame’s critics have noted that his official policy of “banishment” of ethnic identification in Rwanda is really just a smokescreen for the dominance of Tutsi who comprise the leader’s core inner circle, although there are high-ranking Hutu, such as prime minister Anastase Murekezi, in Kagame’s government. Thus, the “us versus them” conundrum, aided in this case by the imperative of ethnic survival and shrouded in accusations of a repressive political climate and poor human rights record, remains embedded in a larger worldview of transformation that has marked Rwanda’s post-genocide journey
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10002.html We ship printed books within 1 business day; personal PDFs are available immediately.

Structure factors 4.3. Private sector-led development
For Rwanda’s development, the emergence of a viable private sector that can take over as the principle growth engine of the economy is absolutely key. Not only will such a development be conducive for economic growth, but it will also ensure the emergence of a vibrant middle class of entrepreneurs, which will help develop and embed the principles of democracy. Although foreign direct investment will be encouraged, a local-based business class remains a crucial component of development.
The Government of Rwanda will foster private sector development as a catalyst; ensuring that infrastructure (specifically IT, transport and energy), human resources and legal frameworks are geared towards to stimulating economic activity and growth of private investments.
The continued development of the financial sector remains crucial with an increasing number of people accessing financial services. The financial sector must be able to provide the necessary capital for private sector development. The government aims to promote local business through the introduction of industrial parks and export processing zones in which foreign operators could partner with local businesses.
Particular attention will be paid to the labour market. More than 10 years into the implementation of Vision 2020, the Rwandan economy has been able to generate 1.2 million non-farm jobs. With population expected to reach around 13.5 million by 2020 and at least half the population depending on off-farm activities, it will therefore be necessary to create
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1.6 million off-farm jobs. This will require a substantial number of jobs created in the private sector.
4.4. Infrastructure development
The development of infrastructure is a crucial aspect in lowering the costs of doing business in Rwanda, which is essential to attracting domestic and foreign investments.
Land use management
Land use management is a fundamental tool in development. As Rwanda is characterized by acute land shortage, a land use plan has been developed to ensure its optimal utilization in urban and rural development. Currently, Rwanda’s scarce land resources still face a challenge of ineffective translation of the developed land use master plan into sector strategic plans and district development plans. In the coming years, Rwanda will ensure that every development plan is guided by the land use master plan. The recent land tenure regularization will increase security on ownership and improve productive land usage.
Rwanda will continue to pursue a harmonious policy of organized grouped settlements (umudugudization). Rural settlements organized into active development centres will be further equipped with basic infrastructure and services. While this system of settlement will continue to serve as an entry point into the development of non-agricultural income generating activities, land consolidation will be emphasized so as to create adequate space for modern and viable farming.
Urban development
By 2020, each town will have updated urban master plans with coordinated implementation of the plans. The country will develop basic infrastructure in urban centres and in other development poles, enabling the decongestion of agricultural zones. The proportion of those living in towns and cities will increase from 14.8% in 2010 to 35% in 2020 (and 10% in 2000). The income differential between towns and rural areas should remain within reasonable proportions, due to the decentralization of economic activities throughout the country.
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Transport
Rwanda is landlocked with high transport costs to the ocean ports of Kenya and Tanzania. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative lower costs of transport to the sea, notably through a regional rail extension to Isaka, Tanzania and an extension to the Ugandan Railway system. Furthermore, a second airport capable of serving, as a regional hub for the great lakes region will be developed. For the internal market, Rwanda has a reliable and safe transport network of feeder roads; however, these will continue to be maintained, extended and improved.
Communication & ICT
Rwanda has made a rapid improvement in ICT with fibre optic network coverage all through the country, mobile telephone network coverage at almost 100%, with 45% mobile subscriptions in 2011. By 2020, Rwanda projects to have internet access at all administrative levels, for all secondary schools and for a large number of primary schools. Telephone services will be widespread in rural areas and efficiency of public services will have increased through the application of e-government principles. It is expected that mobile subscription will reach 60% and the number of internet users will reach at least 50 % (from 4.3% in 2010).
energy
Inadequate and expensive electricity supply constitutes a limiting factor to development. Wood is the main source of energy for 86.3% (2010) of the population down from 99% in 2000 which is a significant drop. This leads to massive deforestation and soil destruction. Imported petroleum products consume more than 17% of foreign exchange. Rwanda will therefore increase energy production and diversify into alternative energy sources.
To achieve this, Rwanda has considerable hydroelectric potential, in addition to large deposits of renewable methane gas in Lake Kivu, estimated at 60 billion cubic meters. In rural areas direct solar energy or photovoltaic energy can be used, whilst up to 1/3 of 155 million tons of peat deposit is currently exploitable. Rwanda projects that by 2020, at least 75% of the population will be connected to electricity (up from 2% in 2000 and 11% in 2010) and the consumption of wood will decrease from the current 86.3% to 50% of national energy consumption.
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Water
In 2010, 74.2% of Rwandans have access to clean water. The country is endowed with reserves that could provide enough water for both consumption and agricultural purposes. These include substantial rainfall (between 900 & 1500 mm per year) and the abundance of lakes, streams and watercourses. Furthermore, there is an abundant supply of high altitude water in the western part of the country, which may be used in providing water by gravity to the southern and south-eastern regions of the country that face water shortages. Rwanda will continue to invest in protection and efficient management of water resources, as well as water infrastructure development to ensure that by 2020 all Rwandans have access to clean water.
Waste management
The transmission of various water- borne diseases can be attributed to the consumption of dirty and contaminated water. The unplanned and disorganized construction of towns without a suitable drainage system exacerbates sanitary problems. Sewerage and rainwater can destroy public roads or stagnate, creating ideal breeding grounds for both human and animal diseases. Since most houses are situated on the summit and on the slopes of hills, water sources are in constant danger of pollution by domestic sewerage and other human activities carried by the stream of water. The environmental impact and waste management has recently been taken into account by human settlements and industrial installations, but challenges remain.
By 2020, the rural and urban areas are to have sufficient sewerage and disposal systems. Each town is to be endowed with an adequate unit for treating solid wastes. Households will have mastered and be practicing measures of hygiene and waste disposal.
4.5. Productive high value and market oriented agriculture
Since independence, Rwanda’s economic policies have targeted agriculture as the main engine of economic growth. Though agriculture productivity has been increasing in the recent years, there is still room for improvement. It will be necessary to continue with the implementation of aggressive transformational policies that move towards a modern and more productive agriculture.
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Agricultural policy orientation will continue to focus on promoting intensification so as to increase productivity, promoting value addition, modernization and improved quality of livestock to achieve an average annual growth rate of 8.5%. The vision aims to replace subsistence farming by a fully, commercialized agricultural sector by 2020.
4.6. Regional and international integration
Rwanda considers regional economic integration as one of the crucial elements of achieving Vision 2020. To this end, Rwanda will continue pursuing an open, liberal trade regime, minimizing barriers to trade as well as implementing policies to encourage foreign direct investment. Furthermore, policies to promote competitive enterprises, exports and entrepreneurship will be emphasized. Economic zones for ICT based production will be crucial for enhancing competitiveness of Rwandan firms.
The vision of accessing larger regional markets will be accompanied through a program of investing in infrastructure to promote Rwanda as a logistics, telecommunication and financial hub. Furthermore, taking advantage of Rwanda’s comparative strategic position should be exploited in terms of warehouse functions in trade and commerce. Export processing zones, coupled with the industrial reforms noted above, will enable the country to consolidate its niche in services, communication and financial sectors and take advantage of growing regional co- operation in the Great Lakes/ Eastern African Region.
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5. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUeS OF VISION 2020
Alongside the 6 pillars, there are three cross-cutting areas of gender, environment and climate change; and science and technology.
5.1. Gender equality
Women make up 53% of the population and participate in subsistence agriculture more than men. They usually feed and provide care for their children and ensure their fundamental education. There has been tremendous progress in gender equality specifically in education (as the number of girls in primary and secondary education has surpassed boys with girls to boys ratio at 1.03) and in decision making positions (as of 2012 women represent about 56% of parliamentarians).
In order to strengthen gender equality and equity, Rwanda will further update and adapt its laws on gender. It will continue to support education for all, fight against poverty and practice a positive discrimination policy in favour of women with a focus in TVET, tertiary level and in employment opportunities. Gender will continue to be integrated as a cross-cutting issue in all development policies and strategies at both central and local government levels.
5.2. Natural resources, environment and climate change
To date, climate change is widely recognized as the major environmental problem facing the globe that is becoming inextricably linked to development. Rwanda is increasingly facing global climate change consequences including; flooding, resulting in disasters such as landslides that cost lives and resources, and droughts that adversely affect agricultural output. Other threats to the environment take the form of depletion of bio-diversity, degradation of ecosystems such as swamps and wetlands and pollution of waterways. Rwanda will continue to put in place strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change by focusing on developing eco-friendly policies and strategies in all sectors of the economy and by promoting green growth.
5.3. Science, technology and ICT
Rwanda will continue to invest in developing adequate, highly skilled scientists and technicians to satisfy the needs of the transition to knowledge-based economy. A knowledge based-economy will require innovative products that can be competitive in regional and global
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markets. Having laid the foundations for ICT to take-off in the country through the laying of the fibre optic cable network, Rwandans have a whole new world of opportunities to take advantage of. More importantly the government of Rwanda will encourage the use of ICT as a tool for self employment, innovation and job creation. Policies to encourage development of smart applications that meet economic needs and develop economic potential will be promoted amongst the youth. ICT as a tool for improving service delivery in both the private and public sector will be emphasized.
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6. THe ROAD MAP
This roadmap lays out how Rwanda’s Vision 2020 will be realized through the country’s planning process. It also establishes a set of yardsticks against which we can measure our progress towards achieving the targets. Macroeconomic projections and the underlying assumptions clearly showing the requirements to realize the Vision are also made.
6.1. Rwanda’s planning process and the realization of Vision 2020
To ensure smooth implementation of Vision 2020 and achievement of the aspirations described above, it will have to be reflected in the whole planning process and, particularly, medium-term operational instruments. Therefore, the long-term aspirations of the Vision will translate into medium -term Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies (EDPRS) at the national level.
The EDPRS is operationalized through sector strategies and district development plans. The sector strategies and the district development plans are implemented through the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF); three- year fully integrated budgets that mainstream the Public Investment Programs (PIP) of the agencies and translate into concrete action plans, costed through annual budgets. The poverty reduction achieved through the MTEF will be monitored and will feed back into the elaboration of sector and district plans.
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Figure 2: Converting vision 2020 into a reality

Vision 2020

4 critical factors : how we can improve our social environment.

Sector strategies
MTEFs
District development plans
EDPRS
Annual Budget
Annual action plans
Annual action plans
Monitoring and Evaluation
6.2. Achieving Vision 2020: Macroeconomic assumptions and projections
The implementation of Vision 2020 strongly holds onto the necessity to achieve the aspirations of the Rwandan people, by markedly transforming the economy, turning the country into a middle-income country and parting away with extreme poverty.
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Inspired by recent robust economic performance and remarkable progress in reducing poverty, assumptions for the macroeconomic perspectives over the period until 2020 were made, aiming at more robust growth and more ambitious objectives.
Notwithstanding the existing macroeconomic challenges stemming from both internal and external imbalances with still sizeable aid dependence and a large trade balance deficit, the Vision’s macroeconomic assumptions aim for an annual average real GDP growth of 11.5 percent, GDP per capita of USD 1,240, gradual but sustained improvement in the external trade balance, higher investments and savings, and a stronger financial sector.
With real GDP expected to grow on average by 11.5 percent per year (real output growth between 2000 and 2011 was on average 8.3 percent a year), agriculture would need to grow by at least 8.5 percent and reach about 25 percent of total output (agriculture grew on average by 5.6 percent a year between 2000 and 2011 and amounted to 32 percent of total output in 2011). The industry is expected to grow by 14 percent on average and reach about 20 percent of total output (industry grew on average by 9.5 percent a year between 2000 and 2011 and amounted to 16 percent of total output in 2011) while services would be expected to continue taking the lead, growing by 13.5 percent on average and expected to reach about 55 percent of total output (services grew on average by 10.2 percent between 2000 and 2011 and amounted to 46 percent of total output).
Increased investments will be needed to achieve the growth objectives from both the public sector as well as the private sector. Domestic investments are expected to expand, but this will need a stronger financial sector to mobilize the necessary savings to finance those investments. Total investments are expected to reach 30 percent of GDP by 2020 (from about 21 percent of GDP in 2011) with the private sector gradually taking a larger proportion, and savings are expected to reach 20 percent of GDP by 2020 (from about 14 percent of GDP in 2011).
The scaled up investments in bottleneck-releasing infrastructure projects that are expected to bolster competitiveness and further reduce external trade imbalances, will require equally substantive financing that the domestic savings mobilization efforts alone will not be able to cater for. While a gradual 0-+

in the reliance on foreign aid remains a key objective over the medium-term, domestic revenues – that nevertheless are expected to significantly increase – will alone not cover all the required public investments. A combination of highly concessional financing
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(in the form of grant financing and concessional borrowing) and nonconcessional borrowing that does not adversely affect Rwanda’s external debt sustainability will be considered, while avenues leading to a greater participation of the private sector will also be emphasized through public private partnership ventures.
In order to realize the targets set out, we will have to streamline planning processes so that the Vision is translated into implementable plans, with strong linkages between set priorities and the allocation of resources. It also requires a mobilization of a substantial financial resource from the state, the donor community and the private sector. If these resources can be efficiently allocated through the planning process, the goals set in this Vision will become attainable.
6.3 Institutional framework for the implementation of Rwanda’s vision
The implementation of the Vision 2020 is within the ambition of all players: the state, the private sector, civil society, NGOs, decentralized authorities, grassroots communities, faith-based organizations and development partners. The top most policy making bodies of Vision 2020 implementation is the Cabinet and the National Steering Committee (Ministers and Governors). The Permanent Secretaries (PS) forum and Development Partners Coordination Group (DPCG) oversee and guide the implementation of the Vision and ensure that consensus building around Vision 2020 implementation is realized.
The Ministry in charge of Finance and Economic Planning coordinates the implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the Vision. It also ensures that Vision 2020 targets are considered in Sector Strategies as well as District Development Plans.
The Ministry will specifically:
• Coordinate all the activities related to the implementation of the Vision 2020
• Mobilize and allocate resources to Vision 2020 priority areas
• Support the planning organs and other institutions in charge of implementation of the Vision
• Ensure that Vision 2020 based sector strategic plans and district developments plans are prepared and linked to the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework and annual budgets
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• Ensure the establishment of a monitoring and evaluation framework for the Vision
• Regularly report to Cabinet the status of achievement of Vision 2020 objectives and targets
The institutional framework for implementation of Vision 2020 is shown in the organization chart below.
Cabinet
National Steering Committee
PS Forum & DPCG
Ministry of Finance and economic Planning
Sector Working Group (SWG) Joint Action Development Forum
6.3 Institutional framework for the implementation of Rwanda’s vision
The implementation of the Vision 2020 is within the ambition of all players: the state, the private sector, civil society, NGOs, decentralized authorities, grassroots communities, faith-based organizations and development partners. The top most policy making bodies of Vision 2020 implementation is the Cabinet and the National Steering Committee (Ministers and Governors). The Permanent Secretaries (PS) forum and Development Partners Coordination Group (DPCG) oversee and guide the implementation of the Vision and ensure that consensus building around Vision 2020 implementation is realized.
The Ministry in charge of Finance and Economic Planning coordinates the implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the Vision. It also ensures that Vision 2020 targets are considered in Sector Strategies as well as District Development Plans.
The Ministry will specifically:
• Coordinate all the activities related to the implementation of the Vision 2020
• Mobilize and allocate resources to Vision 2020 priority areas
• Support the planning organs and other institutions in charge of implementation of the Vision
• Ensure that Vision 2020 based sector strategic plans and district developments plans are prepared and linked to the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework and annual budgets
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• Ensure the establishment of a monitoring and evaluation framework for the Vision
• Regularly report to Cabinet the status of achievement of Vision 2020 objectives and targets
The institutional framework for implementation of Vision 2020 is shown in the organization chart below.
Cabinet
National Steering Committee
PS Forum ; DPCG
Ministry of Finance and economic Planning
Sector Working Group (SWG) Joint Action Development Forum (JADF)
One of the fastest growing economies in Central Africa, Rwanda notched up GDP growth of around 8% per year between 2001 and 2014.
The International Monetary Fund expects the economy to slow down this year and pick up in 2018, forecasting around 6% growth in 2016 compared with 6.9% last year.

Image: IMF
The IMF said Rwanda’s growth in 2015 was driven by construction, services, agriculture and manufacturing, but mining exports have slowed.
2. Poverty rates
The country reduced the percentage of people living below the poverty line from 57% in 2005 to 45% in 2010. Despite this, 63% of the population still live in extreme poverty, defined by the World Bank as less than $1.25 a day.
3. Reducing inequality
Life expectancy, literacy, primary school enrollment and spending on healthcare have all improved.
Rwanda has also made big strides towards gender equality – almost 64% of parliamentarians are women, compared to just 22% worldwide – which has enabled women in the country to make economic advances. Women are now able to own land and girls can inherit from their parents.

Image: Inter-Parliamentary Union
4. Aid dependence
Foreign aid to Rwanda increased significantly as the country began rebuilding itself after the genocide. A large chunk of government revenues – 30-40% of the budget – still comes from aid.
The World Bank says Rwanda’s economy is vulnerable to fluctuations in foreign aid – growth fell to 4.7% in 2013 after some donors withheld aid over allegations in a 2012 UN report that the government was backing rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
5. From a farming to a knowledge economy?
Currently around 83% of Rwanda’s population of 10.5 million live in rural areas and more than 70% of the population still work in subsistence farming. But the government, led by President Paul Kagame, wants to change this.
In the long term, the government aims to transform Rwanda from a low-income agriculture-based economy to a knowledge-based, service-oriented economy with a middle-income status by 2020.
Have you read?
Why Rwanda’s clinics have gone off-grid and onto renewable energy
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Rwanda is located in the poorest region in the world, sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this, it is making advances with off-grid renewable energy solutions for rural areas that could be a model for similar economies.
Rwanda has harnessed its endowment with enormous, untapped renewable energy generation potential to address the problem of how to get energy into remote parts of the country.
The approach being taken accepts that extending the electricity grid to remote areas is fraught with problems. It is expensive, transport costs are high, and accessibility is difficult. In sub-Saharan Africa, grid-extension costs $23,000 per kilometre.
A project to get clinics in remote areas of Rwanda onto reliable sources of renewable energy has recently been stepped up a notch with the introduction of technology that smooths distribution.
Small-scale generation for remote areas
Off-grid electrical systems, where power is derived from renewable energy, have the potential in Rwanda for taking advantage of several types of small-scale generation.
This has become more feasible with the development of new technologies that have revolutionised the possibilities for making these systems highly resilient and economically sustainable. Examples include smart meters with wireless communication and sophisticated technology for fine-grained monitoring and control.
Rwanda is taking advantage of developments such as this to crack the problem of getting electricity to remote clinics.
Uninterrupted access to electricity is a key requirement for improving care in health facilities. But access to either grid or off-grid electricity is still one of the grand challenges for rural health centres in the region. One-quarter of health facilities are not connected to any source of electricity. On average, three-quarters of facilities have no reliable source of electricity. This leads to a poor health care service delivery.
83% of Rwanda’s population live in rural areas. This makes healthcare in these areas all the more important. And ensuring that healthcare centres have power is vital.
To overcome this obstacle decentralised power sources such as PV systems are becoming popular in rural areas because of their cost effectiveness compared to grid extensions. PV systems basically convert solar energy to direct current electricity using semi-conducting materials. But these have not proved adequate in matching supply with demand because:
• Health centres operate on a first-come first-serve basis. If health centres continue to use connected electronic devices without proper management, the chances of blackouts will increase and patients will suffer.
• Unused energy from fewer patients than expected also presents a problem as energy is wasted. Making batteries available to store energy can be a way to ensure less is wasted, help avoid shortages and manage excess demands. But this option is expensive.
The graph below shows the ad-hoc scheduling of energy services in PV-power health clinics. Between t0-t1, the power demand exceeds available solar power. The t1-t2 window sees no load. This results in some services not being delivered, unnecessary use of batteries, and hence a shorter life-time, and less orderly operation.

Existing ways scheduling show overutilisation and underutilisation of the energy generated by solar systems.
Smart scheduling has done the trick
Smart scheduling is used to match consumption of active services with the available solar power. This results in minimum use of batteries or other energy sources.
The idea lying behind is as follows: the central controller estimates daily solar profile of the PV panels by pulling solar radiation information from online servers. Then when a physician wants to undertake an operation that requires electricity he sends a request to the central controller. This request includes power consumption and the duration of the operation.
In our prototype, the final decision lies with the system. Different services have different priorities. So, a surgery room may be given the highest priority during system planning. If an emergency occurs and a surgery room is fed into the system, it will be given the highest priority.
But human intervention is possible. The central controller is a photo voltaic (PV) inside the clinic. This means that a clinic administrator or the highest ranking physician can tap into the system, remove some services from the list and add some others.
The central controller checks the available solar power and the loads that are already being served. If there is sufficient excess energy, the request is confirmed and the energy is delivered. If there is not sufficient energy the controller schedules the request to when there will be enough energy. This may happen due to solar radiation, hence the generation, increasing or a service that was already receiving energy load being terminated.
In this way, facilities are used in a smart way and solar generation is used as it is generated.

This article is published in collaboration with The Conversation. Publication does not imply endorsement of views by the World Economic Forum.
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Author: Taha Selim Ustun is Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.
Image: A solar panel is shown. REUTERS
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Small and landlocked, Rwanda is hilly and fertile with a densely packed population of about 11.9 million people (2016). It borders the far larger and richer Democratic Republic of Congo, as well as its closest East African neighbors, Tanzania, Uganda, and Burundi. With the support of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, Rwanda has been able to make important economic and structural reforms, and sustain its economic growth rates over the last decade

Culture Factors.
Political Context
Rwanda has guarded its political stability since the genocide in 1994. Parliamentary elections in September 2013 saw women fill 64% of the seats, and the Rwandan Patriotic Front maintain an absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies. President Paul Kagame was re-elected to a seven-year term in the August 2018, following an amendment to the constitution in December 2015 allowing him to serve a third term.
Economic Overview
Rwanda’s long-term development goals are defined in “Vision 2020,” a strategy that seeks to transform the country from a low-income, agriculture-based economy to a knowledge-based, service-oriented economy with middle-income country status by 2020. To achieve this, the Government of Rwanda has developed the second Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS 2), a medium-term strategy which outlines the country’s overarching goal to accelerate growth and reduce poverty through four thematic areas: economic transformation, rural development, productivity and youth employment, and accountable governance.
The EDPRS 2 aims to: raise gross domestic product (GDP) per capita to $1,000; reduce the percentage of the population living below the poverty line to less than 30%; and reduce the percentage of the population living in extreme poverty to less than 9%. These goals build on recent development successes over the last decade that include high growth, rapid poverty reduction and reduced inequality. Between 2001and 2015, real GDP growth averaged at about 7.8% per annum.
Development Challenges
Public investments have been the main driver of growth in recent years. External financing through grants, concessional and non-concessional borrowing played an important role in financing of public investments. Growth slowdown of 2016 and 2017 highlighted the limits of public sector-led growth model. Going forward, the private sector will play a bigger role in helping to ensure economic growth. Low domestic savings, skills, and high cost of energy are some of the major constraints to private investment. A stronger dynamism in the private sector will help to sustain high investment rate and accelerate the growth. Promoting domestic savings is viewed as critical.
Social Context
. Rwanda’s strong economic growth was accompanied by substantial improvements in living standards, with a two-thirds drop in child mortality and near-universal primary school enrolment. A strong focus on homegrown policies and initiatives has contributed to significant improvement in access to services and human development indicators. The poverty rate dropped from 44% in 2011 to 39% in 2014, while inequality measured by the Gini coefficient stood at 0.45.

Last Updated: May 16, 2018