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Understanding discrimination
Introduction
In this report I will be talking about indirect and direct discrimination and how we can challenge it. I will also be talking about person centred practice.
Direct discrimination
Age-anyone of any age can be discriminated against. Directly discriminating against someone just because of their age is when an individual is treated differently and worse than someone simply because of their age. E.g. your employer refuses to employ you because you are 65.
Disability- Anyone with any disability can be discriminated against. Directly discriminating against someone with a disability is where an individual who has a disability is treated less favourably just because they have a disability. E.g. A pub not allowing a family to dine in their family room because their child has cerebral palsy.
Sex- Anyone of any sex can be discriminated against. Directly discriminating someone because of their sex is where someone is treated unfairly because they are a man or because they are a woman. E.g. refusing credit to a married woman without her husband’s signature, where as a married man is not required to have his wife’s signature.
Indirect discrimination
Gender reassignment- people can be discriminated against because of their gender. Indirectly discriminating someone because of their gender reassignment is where an organisation puts in place a policy that would put transsexual people at a disadvantage. E.g. a health clinic refuses a transgender woman breast implants because the health authority will not fund them.
Religion or belief- people can be indirectly discriminated against because of their religion or belief. Indirectly discriminating against someone because of their religion or belief is when an organisation has a policy that applies to everyone, but this would put someone at a disadvantage because of their religion or belief. E.g. You are Jewish and you finish early on a Friday in order to observe the sabbath, your manager has changed the weekly team meetings from Wednesday afternoons to Friday afternoons and you are often absent.
Marriage or civil partnership- anyone who is married or in a civil partnership can be discriminated against. Indirectly discriminating against people who are married or in a civil partnership is where an organisation or workplace puts a provision in place and it applies to all workers, but it would put people who are married or in a civil partnership at a disadvantage. E.g. an employer doesn’t employ people who have children. This would put people who are either married or in a civil partnership at a disadvantage because they are statistically more likely to have children.
Approaches to challenge discrimination
Strategy- The best strategies to stop discrimination in any workplace is to ensure that all employees follow the law. Employees that know and stick to are less likely to start discriminating against people. Maintaining a workplace that is free from harassment is vital to satisfying your employees and the productivity. as well as this it also promotes the success of an organization.
“Another strategy that can be used to stop discrimination in a workplace is that a workplace should have a policy communication, the policy should be on the company’s concerns about harassment and discrimination. this should be communicated in many different ways such as E-mail, bulletin board postings, intranet, newsletters and announcement meetings. The policy should include harassment definitions, remedies, consequences, reporting procedures, grievance process and anti-retaliation language.

Reporting- “reporting discrimination can be a useful way of challenging discrimination.” When “you are at work you might be able to resolve your problem by talking to your line manager about it or someone else in position of authority. “E.g. if the organization has a human resources department you could speak to them. ” Also, it is often a good idea to mention the discrimination in writing as well. “This could be by letter or even a short email.” “If you are later victimised by your employer for complaining about discrimination you will have a written record showing that you made the complaint.” “If the discrimination is by another employee, you should write to the employer to inform them of the “situation. “This is because your employer is usually responsible for discrimination by their employees and for protecting you from it. ”
Training- “training is another useful way to stop discrimination “it is usually aimed at improving someone’s skills or knowledge or raising awareness of an issue.” “Your employer usually decides whether to offer training and if it is offered,” they also decide who needs it.” Training opportunities can be delivered in-house or by external providers”. “They can happen face-to-face, online, in groups or one-to-one””. They can include the following: learning on the job, coaching, e-learning, workshop induction, programmes, job shadowing and mentoring. ”
The concept of person centred practice
Individual central- The concept of individual central care is not just about giving people what they want or providing information. It is about considering people’s desires, values, family situations, social circumstances and lifestyles. as well as this is also about seeing the person as an individual and working together to develop appropriate solutions. Also you must be compassionate and think about things from the patients point of view and you have to be respectful as well.

All of this can be shown through sharing decisions with patients and helping people manage their health, but individual-central care is not just about activities it is also about the way professionals and patients think about care and their relationships as the actual services available. In order to be individual-centred services need to change to be more flexible so that they are able to meet people’s needs in a manner that is best for them.
this involves working with people and families to find the best way to provide their care.” This partnership working can occur on a one-to-one basis “where individual people take part in decisions about their health and care or a collective group basis,” where by the public or patient groups are involved in decisions about the design and delivery of services.

Examples of individual –centred care
Involving family and friends
Emotional support
Making sure people have access to care when they need it.

Individual in control- letting an individual become involved in their care means supporting people to manage their own health and wellbeing daily. This means supporting them to become involved as much as they want or can in decisions about their care and giving them choice and control over the services they receive. It also means focusing on what matters to the individual within the context of their lives, and not just addressing a list of conditions or symptoms to be treated.
“Involving people in their own care requires services to move the focus of support from “what is the matter with you?” to “what matters to you”? by doing this it will acknowledge the individual as an expert in their own care and it will give people greater choice and control over the care and support they receive. All of this can be achieved by having a new more inclusive conversation that needs to be taken place between staff, individuals and their careers. If you identify needs and agree together the goals that matter to each person health and wellbeing needs are better met and people are supported to manage their health and the impact it has on their lives more effectively.
Examples of involving people in their care
Arranging appointments for individuals to discuss their concerns or ask questions about their care.
Allowing people to attend peer support groups to manage their health.

Giving people one-to-one appointments which makes their health and social care more accessible.
Conclusion
From doing this report I have learnt about the different types of discrimination and the ways we can approach it. I have also learnt about the concept of person centred practice.

References
https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/work/discrimination-at-work/what-doesn-t-count-as-discrimination-at-work/justifying-age-discrimination-at-work/ date accessed 24/11/18
https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/law-and-courts/discrimination/discrimination-because-of-disability/what-counts-as-disability-discrimination/ date accessed 24/11/18
https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/law-and-courts/discrimination/discrimination-because-of-sex-or-sexual-orientation/discrimination-because-of-sex/ date accessed 24/11/18
https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/advice-and-guidance/gender-reassignment-discrimination date accessed 24/11/18
https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/advice-and-guidance/religion-or-belief-discrimination date accessed 24/11/18
https://www.tribunalclaim.com/marriage-and-civil-partnership-discrimination/ date accessed 24/11/18
https://healthinnovationnetwork.com/system/ckeditor_assets/attachments/41/what_is_person-centred_care_and_why_is_it_important.pdf date accessed 24/11/18
https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ppp-involving-people-health-care-guidance.pdf date accessed 24/11/18