We cannot think a single moment without our safety in daily life activities, similarly every other will follow this rules of safety in their respective situation. In this unit of study, I am going to highlight some of the concerning issues with an aspect of health and safety issues under the title of Safeguarding Individual in accordance with my knowledge. In modern days it is becoming a dynamic, very concern able topic in health and social care study just because of so many technological issues raise concern among social and health caring thinkers. In another way it is easily definable that safe means protects from any harm or danger and guard means to keep eye on any danger. So safeguarding will include the entire inhabitant of the society. This assignment will be focusing about the vulnerable people who are really in danger and depend on other people care. The highlighting points are following below:
? Specific groups and individual, risk factor of abusing, analysing impact of social and cultural facts and its current legislation of it.
? Explain the weakness and strength within legislation and professional involvement to protect them.
? Explaining the current working strategies and policy to eliminate the abuse
? Evaluation of effectiveness of working practices in terms of health and social care principles
? Explain various improvement ways to reduce the abuse
The above mentioned point should be highlighted in the next writing with my effort.

1.1 at the begging, I can say the individuals or groups specially disable, vulnerable, elder or child are mostly falls under this group who can be the target of the abusers because they is completely unable to prevent any kind of abuse or violation against them that means we can assume they are most vulnerable in the society. When such a situation is coming or we may confront with this such a familiar situation, let say elderly lady who cannot do nothing with her dependency weakness that indicate us she is powerless. So there are so many individuals or groups exist in society who is powerless in that sense just because of their weakness of dependency to others. So I can also mention some basis or ground of abusing about the people or groups who may in that category: like individual may face abuse on the ground of ethnicity, colour, race, religion, wealth disparity, poor or rich ground and also cultural difference, etc.
From time to time, we are health and social care learners updating our knowledge in so many ways about the abuse like different ground or base wise. Basically we can identify that the origin and practices about abuses which is grounded among families, society or simply it is originated from surrounding. So some scholar blames the families and parents who are bearing this issue which can be identified as first area of abusing so that the scholar or authority can be defined that is happening among family and parents. Therefore, the common issue stays same which may sometimes becomes more dangerous within community and state.
According to my study about this area suggest that anyone who either 18 years under or over who are suffering from serious illness and cannot maintain their own work independently, they may be fall under this category of individuals and facings abuses. So many factors may be found such as: who cannot learn, physical in unfit condition, no sighting power to judge and who cannot able to hear, and any one under incapacity condition. I assume older, young children, females, disabled person and ethnic minority are majority side of vulnerable individuals.
Here I will give a try to show some division of abusing. Those are as follows: a. verbally, b. sexually and physically or in any other situations like in institutions, profession, work place, etc. let’s go for an example: a scenario of a old lady who is rely on carer service for everyday living. So it is pretty sure that she is weak and more vulnerable as I faced this situation in my caring field when I was doing personal care for him on my shift because it is informed everyday that my clients have some relatives who came and visit him regularly and there is something stealing of money during the relative visit. So it is showing her incapacity or vulnerable condition.
This above mentioned way we can find so many of abusing is happening around us daily. Like in school, college, university, work place, community, etc. sometimes the abusing can turn into a big issue among the society which are really carrying a bad impact on the individual.

1.2 The different kinds of abuse have been classified from expert knowledgeable people whose way of classification may help us to find out why the victim group into feeling guilty and scariness. This are including in physical, emotion, verbal, sexual, financial, neglect or any other kind of situation which can be identified as a symptoms of abusing. As I mentioned above, few of the particular group like vulnerable, disable, child or older people who can mainly depend on other help or caring to fulfil their daily basic needs but it can be mention that there are some more associated factor available to make them even more vulnerable in practice. This factor is following below:
Debilitating physical condition: who are not allowed to do anything on his/her own so it is physical state of condition what cannot allow the individuals to their own work like medicine, toileting, dressing, and etc.They cannot say anything about of the fact.
Fewer visitors: from the point of home base care context that are taking care service by keeping away from family, friends and relatives and that is why this category of individuals fall into risk of abusing due to not visiting by relatives regularly.
Poor socio-economic condition: when people are feeling they are becoming poor day by day and some of them getting rich in socio-economic condition. There is a high chance to get abused by this factor of negligence and discrimination. Similarly a child can be abused in the family if there is a condition of fighting violence, conflicting and lack of interaction. Also if there are no good terms between the children due to due born with previous partner in biological fact?
How the Self-harm and its risk factors issue is established in the cotemporary social system which is found by royal college psychiatrists and showing some of the sign about self harm. It is describing a situation about a client like when somebody intentionally injures or hurt himself or even sometimes they put them into suicide may be because of struggle with, money, unemployment, depression, negligence, taking over dose than prescribed etc.
Some of the area we can identify that in where the individual or group are most of self harming point such as females, prisoners, teenagers. So self-harm activity shows us the sign of abusing which can be addressed by social or care worker with the values of ethics and high quality services.

1.3 As we can see the existing of different fact which can help us to understand abusing issues in so many ways. The first and foremost, the service user or client may be in vulnerable because of his weakness of any mental sick, physical sick or poor health condition mainly depend on other person, this situation make him to compromise to sacrificing the power of voice against the abuse as it may seem to them out of serving. Such a way we can find so many victims are unnoticed just due to their weakness. I.e. mentally disorder, physically unable people are in this group. Let’s have an example of mental health client Mr. XXX who was my client long time before who has so many health conditions and his conditions make him to depend on other care. He could not do anything against any kind of force like in case of stealing money, taking his valuable, etc. that kind of people are at high risk of abuse.

This way we can also see poor people becomes abused by poverty, neglected and discriminated in public. Less educated and disadvantaged people in employment, in public care services and those can lead them to suicide attempts, drug or alcohol abuse. It is not only that people individual may get abused by the identity, ethnicity, religious belief, cultural practices, values of traditional views, but also we can see some modern aspect of abuse we can defined as follows: a, institutional b, professional level at work c, national level at nationwide perception in the view of expert knowledge.
In addition to this social factor, we can also find cultural factors like ethnicity, religion and beliefs of individuals play an important role in determining their risk of abusing in real situation. Say for an example of this when a Muslim client is looked after by different believer there may be chance or risk of getting abused in terms of carer belief. Similarly it may happen in the ground of ethnic origin, colour, race and gender. In spite of being several laws, policies and legislation in practice to give them equal treatment and fair respect but still there this kind of ground is making discrimination and do not addressing them equally. In some society, we can see woman are naturally devalued by considering them low or inferior to male dominant society. Some study found this is a significant issue because in that particular culture if we look at the UK context a baby girl is playing with push chair to push a dolly baby which means a girl is here to nurture a baby in future who can need a massive attention from the feminist side of campaigners.

2.1 From the practical point, we can see a care work learner are coming across a large number of abuse within the study area such as people face abusing by neglecting or harm at the homes, public sites or private premises and to protect this type of abusing we can also see some governmental initiatives or policies are active to minimise the situation calm down. So the various guidelines are set up by government which is needed to be followed at care premises to make sure all the client are in good and harmonised condition when providing care to the service user. Furthermore, there are some compulsory set up available what have to follow by the caring provider to establish a secure and peaceful environment by practicing some laws and regulations accordingly.
Now I will put an effort of writing about the government legislations, laws and policies which can empower and safeguard vulnerable people of abusing in realistic way. Those are as follows:
? Care act 2014(department of health and 2014) is working to make sure that NHS and other local authorities deliver a quality service to their patients, treat them with equal respect and dignity and provide them safe and secure environment in overall make them free from any kind of abuse happening.

? Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Acts (2006) is functioning here to protect all kind of vulnerable individuals from unqualified or unprofessional people at care centres. That is the reason for DBS and CRB policy is taken by the care homes.
? Sexual offences Act (2003) are another compliance to protect sexual abuse of individual with mental disorders; this act restricts any sexual activity between paid/unpaid care worker and the person who requiring care without his permission or consent which can be a punishable or prosecuted.
? Ill treatment or Wilful Neglect sections of 20 guidance is saying that protect the people who lacks capacity to make decision, in health and care homes or centre from being poorly treated or neglected can be prosecuted which includes hitting, humiliating or verbally abuses service users.
? Equality Act (2010) empowers the people to take action against any harmful, abusive or discriminatory action or prevent such incidence in their workplace by identifying and reporting cases to senior official authorities in terms of inequality behaviour at work place. Along with these there are some other similar acts and laws and recommended policies are quite effective in protecting vulnerable child, adult, disabled and other interested people.
? Public disclosure act 1998 is also another guideline for the caring worker who can empower any harmful, abusive situation or discriminative behaviour at work places and staff of the working site can report to senior official for the recovery of incidence such as claim procedures.

By having above mentioned practicable different guidelines, laws and policies in practice but still we can see weakness, limitations in the system remain the abuse unresolved.
Say for example when a white man looking at black people with some bad expression or gestures which may cause a difficulty to this black guy and it is a clear negligence look or abuse that cannot be proved by evidence in judicial system.

2.2 A renown study suggest that we can identify some issue are involved in so many ways to reduce abusing level at care setting, Various service premises and agencies play a great role by practicing the existing polices which supporting to promote a balanced society, from the government, NGO authorities, some other different profession are complementary with each other by applying the morality and ethical values in practical area. The identification will be like in GP, paediatrician, service providers, etc are supposed to deliver their services in way to do no make any harm to the users by maximising possible benefit to the client with an application of servicing is in the heart of caring activity so that the client is not in any kind of harming or hurting conditions. So hereby care professional need to show equal respect in case of their social, colour, race, cultural, religious belief, and ethnical ground and gender boundaries.
The disadvantaged people are protected by local health board by identifying the needs and requirements which can lead to design the application of different strategies and goals in direction to provide effective service to the entire patient. This kind of activity can make sure that recommended policies, legislation and guidelines are being strictly followed at service centres to protect local people from all sorts of harming and abusing.
According to the care quality commission act which can make sure that the whole group of individual right is protected through this act which shows us that the service are in high quality service taking side. The local and national agencies performance is needed to inspect regularly and check whether people are getting proper services as per recommended standards or not. Care Standards Inspectorate is carrying out this activity to all sort of caring premises and body. They take a note about the service like feedback and suggestion from the professional of the care provider.
Another statement is a worthy of mention in relation to this, their statement shows Victim support organisation can be formed to provide best support to the abused people and the victim’s. This kind of organisation is only there to help and support independently for the recovery of the damaged situation and it is recommended by the social and health professional.

3.1 There are several ways of working practices are already in application to eliminate abusing and different strategies have been adopted by the organisation under the government instructions and non-government agencies. Now I will demonstrate my skills and knowledge about existing working strategy and practical performances for reducing abuse level from the study point of this unit. The government has made laws and, set the standards of care services which is a set of code and conduct is being followed at care centres or other health service provider to make sure right services are given.
We can see those laws are in practice such as Care Protection act, data protection act (new GDRR), sexual offence act, etc is there to cut down the abuse of individuals or groups and set a protection measurement of minimising abuse like punishment and sentenced system would be followed according to current laws and regulations.
From other service provider point of view, we can see similar kind of at temptation is visible. I.e. risk factor is needed to be compromise in disable or incapable health condition which can be somewhat poverty oriented, some of social and even may be include biological issues such as a children from previous partners , etc and there are good ideal practice of working model is set up.
The point of this unit academic view, the entire care provider is compliance with laws like nurses, GP, Paediatricians, are taught about warning sign of abuse. It is not only practicing strategies in professional level but it is massively needed a nationwide campaign to tackle the abuse.

3.2 If we look at effectiveness of current laws and legislation, it can be easily identifiable of all caring provider is compliance with current laws and legislation. Let’s say about the communication in health care which is in practice of all level of caring service. Such also complaint policy, safe handling of all information and data, whistle blowing policy, adoption of procedures and practices of recommended strategy, recruited right employees, etc are the key playing tools to justify the best care in practice and measurement of minimising the abuse in general. Some major study findings shows that training session, seminar and regular inspection by supreme authority can ensure that all individual are receiving high quality of caring services in a secured atmosphere. Another way of saying can be found that all current rules of practicing strategies are still need to make this law more effectively work against all kind of abuse system as those not out of any limitation. While it is very difficult to prove the evidence to get a best output but due to scared of disclosing or invisible factors like fear of losing job in company of any staff abused sexually by her boss or team member. That is why victim support centre launched. So this is how we can some other groups or individual still suffer from discrimination or neglect behaviour at care service centres. Such as children, females and adults facing abuse in their home for ineffectiveness of current laws application. Therefore, we can agree on that point while strategic policy is released then professional people can apply nicely for the welfare of the service user.

3.3 There may be so many steps can be taken to improve the overall effectiveness of the current practical performances and policies of the care practice to safeguard individuals or groups. This is as follows:
o Any kind of changing is good to the current system say for example the abusing issue should be addressed in an appropriate way by the guidance of legislative system. The abuse is happening all around working place in school, college, university, etc. so all educational body need to establish a slogan to cut down it.
o Recent effective system to Install CCTV in the premises can help to improve the service quality. So it may be install in the high concern part of the site which can secure the place is achievable in later following any incident as a real evidence of happening.
o Now a day’s 24 hours call service centre have to be active to help the disadvantage service user and their relatives and family members can be engaged in relation all kind of helping. Which service can facilitate complain, feedback and appraisal can be helpful.
o Hearing related to abuse and harm cases must be more seriously considered and must be offender is well punished.
o All health care premises should be in practice of system making an annual report of all the abuse cases, their patterns and action took against abuse.
o The minimum qualification of the job and experience needed to handle the service user in professional manner.
o Record keeping system

From above all mentioned reforming points really should be very effective and helpful for the safeguard of individuals or groups in the health and social care. From the study it is also clear to all social and health care learners in where it says reformation the entire practices and policies to get maximum of by so many

Finally, we can say that there are specific group or individuals like female, children, disabled people, young adults and so on at the high risk of abusing in physical, mental, sexual, financial, religious, cultural, institutional, gender, colour, race and ethnic. So we can also identify that it is the prime duty of government and other associated to protect these types of vulnerable group or individuals by establishing safe and secure atmosphere in health and social care premises all over even in institution as well so that every people feel secured and relax from the abusing factors.